Pesto alla genovese

Basil pesto. – CC BY-SA 3.0

Pesto alla Genovese (pronounced in Genovese Ligurian dialect: /’péstu/, in Ponentine Ligurian dialect: /’pištu/) is a typical traditional condiment from Liguria. With this denomination, it is included among the Ligurian Traditional Food Products (PAT).
Its primary ingredient is basil (Ocimum basilicum), and more specifically, Basilico Genovese (in Ligurian language baxeicò [baʒeɪ’kɔ] or baxaicò [baʒaɪ’kɔ]).
Pesto alla Genovese is obtained by crushing (stirring under pressure) basil with salt, pine nuts, and garlic, seasoned with Parmigiano Reggiano, Fiore Sardo, and extra virgin olive oil. Therefore, it is a raw sauce, which is a mixture in which the ingredients are mixed cold, not cooked. Because of this characteristic, the ingredients do not lose their original organoleptic characteristics.

Da Wikipedia, l’enciclopedia libera.

How to make Pesto alla genovese

Pesto alla Genovese (pronounced in Genovese Ligurian dialect: /’péstu/, in Ponentine Ligurian dialect: /’pištu/) is a typical traditional condiment from Liguria. With this denomination, it is included among the Ligurian Traditional Food Products (PAT).
Its primary ingredient is basil (Ocimum basilicum), and more specifically, Basilico Genovese (in Ligurian language baxeicò [baʒeɪ’kɔ] or baxaicò [baʒaɪ’kɔ]).
Pesto alla Genovese is obtained by crushing (stirring under pressure) basil with salt, pine nuts, and garlic, seasoned with Parmigiano Reggiano, Fiore Sardo, and extra virgin olive oil. It is, therefore, a raw sauce, which is a mixture in which the ingredients are mixed cold, not cooked. Because of this characteristic, the ingredients do not lose their original organoleptic characteristics.

Origins

The first example was, in Roman times, Moretum, described by Virgil. The first recipe of pesto alla Genovese is dated back to the nineteenth century. However, it is indebted to more ancient crushed sauces such as agliata (Ligurian version of classic agliata), made of garlic and walnuts, spread in Liguria during the maritime republic of Genoa, and French pistou.
Most of the La Spezia and Genoa areas were used leftover cheese crusts because economically less expensive; moreover, potatoes were added as they were cheaper than pasta.

Recipe

The first written recipe can be found in the Vera Cuciniera Genovese (True Genoese Kitchen) by Emanuele Rossi (1852), called Pesto d’Aglio e Basilico (Garlic and Basil Pesto). In all likelihood, in ancient times, at least in the recipe born in peasant homes, Parmigiano-Reggiano cheese was not used, as it was a rare cheese on popular Ligurian tables, but only pecorino cheese; not the Sardinian one, but the one handcrafted by the shepherds of the Genoese Apennines. On the other hand, the peasant palates of the past were accustomed to aromas and flavors much more intense and, at times, rustic than those of today.

Ingredients

According to tradition, these are the seven ingredients for pesto…:

Young Pra’ basil leaves (the smaller ones): the suitable basil traditionally comes from the cultivations located on the heights of Pra’, a district of Genoa. This basil, with a delicate and not mentholated taste (a fundamental quality), currently enjoys the Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) and for its qualities is indicated for the realization of traditional pesto;
Ligurian Riviera extra virgin olive oil. The oil produced in Liguria is typically delicate (it does not “sting” and does not “stick in the throat,” especially the one made from olives of the “Taggiasca” cultivar of the Riviera dei Fiori) and not very fruity, or rather, “sweet fruity,” that is, with the notes of bitterness and pungency (present in every quality extra virgin oil) not overpowering the sensation of sweetness, and for its qualities, it is a Protected Designation of Origin (PDO);
Italian pine nuts, better if from Pisa. (Those of the pine forest of S. Rossore, at the mouth of the Arno, are the best because they are the finest, most delicate and sweet, both in scent and taste: the most valuable).
Parmigiano-Reggiano stravecchio (aged at least 30 months): it must be very mature, also because, in this way, it does not “cook” when the cooking water of the pasta is added to stretch the cream;
Fiore Sardo (DOP Sardinian pecorino cheese) with at least ten months of seasoning.
Garlic of Vessalico (Municipality of the lower Arroscia Valley of Imperia), characterized by a less intense taste;
Coarse sea salt, preferably the particularly intense salt from the salt pans of Trapani.

It is important to use premium ingredients because they contain the characteristics that ensure a balanced, quality final flavor.

Preparation

Preparation of pesto, crushed with a wooden pestle in the traditional marble mortar

Traditionally pesto is produced with the use of mortar and pestle. The pesto commonly found in commerce is produced with a blender, whereas artisans still use the mortar. The use of a blender has the drawback of oxidizing the basil leaves and heating the cream. Using a blender, the recipe consists of mixing the various ingredients, until obtaining a fine and creamy consistency, with only the final addition of oil. It is, however preferable to keep the mixing order of the recipe made with a mortar. Variations are possible because of the different proportions of the ingredients.
The recipe with the mortar is traditionally codified; however it can be modified according to personal taste. Here is the most accredited version:
The traditional mortar is marble with a wooden pestle. Basil leaves are washed and left to dry, being careful not to crumple them to avoid the breakage of vesicles, with consequent blackening and alteration of taste.
In a mortar, crush the garlic cloves (1 clove for every 30 basil leaves).
Basil leaves are then added, interspersing them with modest layers of salt, which, being thick, plays the abrasive role necessary to effectively crush the leaves, which are then crushed by rotating the pestle against the walls of the mortar, coordinating movements in one direction of the pestle with the rotation of the mortar in the opposite direction by grasping its characteristic “ears” with the freehand.
When the basil begins to ooze a green liquid and looks like a uniform cream, add the pine nuts and then the previously grated cheeses (in the following proportions: 2/3 of Parmigiano and 1/3 of Fiore Sardo, approximately, in order not to make the taste too unbalanced, since the Fiore has a stronger taste), mixing everything well with rotating movements of the pestle and with the possible help of a spoon.
Finally, add the olive oil in drops, which also plays an antioxidant role.
The process should be completed as soon as possible to avoid the oxidation of the ingredients. Pesto must appear as a thick cream of uniform light green color. The different ingredients must be mixed to achieve balance in tastes without prevailing.
Before being used as a condiment for pasta, according to the final consistency obtained, the pesto can be diluted with the cooking water of theiations pasta to obtain a more diluted consistency, which must never be too liquid. However, pesto to be added to minestrone does not need this final procedure.

Main variations

The recipe is subject to variations according to local traditions and personal tastes. The proportion between the two kinds of cheese can be very varied: it can go from a ratio of half and a half to the use of Parmesan cheese only; the ideal is about one-third of Fiore Sardo and two-thirds of Parmesan cheese. The quantity of garlic can be reduced for those who consider its taste too strong – or the cloves can be deprived of the central core – but the use of Vessalico Garlic guarantees both delicacy and digestibility.
If you do not have Basilico di Pra’ or you have mentholated basil, you can use the system of slightly blanching basil leaves in boiling water to sweeten their taste. This system is also helpful if you want to preserve basil for long periods.
Above all in the hinterland, for reasons of availability, it was customary, by contradicting the disciplinary, to use walnuts instead of pine nuts, adequately selected and without the skin which has a bitter taste. Some variants mix pine nuts and walnuts in variable percentages.
In an old enriched version and still expected, are added in the pasta, together with pesto, boiled potatoes, and green beans.
In the hinterland, especially those of Genoa and Savona, as in ancient times, it was difficult to find oil; they used to add butter in its place as dairy products, on the contrary, were readily available.
A cookbook of 1893, in the absence of basil, suggests using marjoram (persa) and parsley (porsemmo).
Despite the many unofficial variants, the authentic pesto alla Genovese recipe recognized by the disciplinary is one, the first one indicated.

Use

Pesto alla Genovese is used to season pasta dishes such as potato gnocchi or trofie advantaged, minestrone alla Genovese and pasta, such as trofiette, bavette, linguine, trenette, corzetti, tagliatelle, tagliolini, lasagna and risotto.

Recognition and Specifications

Genoese Basil PDO of Pra’

Pesto alla Genovese is included among the Ligurian Traditional Food Products (PAT) recognized by the Ministry of Agricultural, Food and Forestry Policies.
The name “pesto Genovese” is subject to a disciplinary set by the Consorzio del Pesto Genovese.
In big distribution points (especially outside Liguria), pesto is often found that substitutes extra virgin olive oil with other seed oils. Walnut sauce is sometimes used instead of the original pine nuts or cashews, citric acid, parsley are added to give green color, and green beans to increase the mass or other ingredients that dilute or alter the taste. Although familiar and pleasing to the palate, these products also significantly differ from authentic Genoese pesto’s taste and organoleptic properties.
The brands present in the GDO also sell the version “without garlic,” which, however, does not correspond to the authentic traditional Genoese pesto.
Since 2007 is held in Genoa, every two years, the world championship of pesto al mortaio.

Regional recipe from Liguria

ITALIANO

Origini

Primo esempio fu, in epoca romana, il Moretum, descritto da Virgilio. La prima ricetta del pesto alla genovese viene fatta risalire all’Ottocento, anche se certamente è debitrice di più antiche salse pestate come l’agliata (versione alla ligure dell’agliata classica), a base d’aglio e noci, diffusa in Liguria durante la repubblica marinara genovese, e il pistou francese.
Nella maggior parte della zona spezzina e genovese venivano usate le croste di formaggio avanzate, perché economicamente meno costose, inoltre le patate venivano aggiunte in quanto meno care della pasta.

Ricetta

La prima ricetta scritta la si trova sulla Vera Cuciniera Genovese di Emanuele Rossi (1852), denominata come Pesto d’Aglio e Basilico. Con molta probabilità anticamente, almeno nella ricetta nata nelle case contadine, non era prevista la presenza del Parmigiano-Reggiano, poiché formaggio raro sulle mense popolari liguri, ma soltanto il pecorino; non il sardo, ma quello prodotto artigianalmente dai pastori dell’Appennino genovese. D’altronde i palati contadini delle epoche passate erano abituati ad aromi e sapori molto più intensi e, a volte, rustici di quelli attuali.

Ingredienti

Secondo la tradizione, questi sono i sette ingredienti per il pesto.:

  • Foglie di basilico di Pra’ giovani (quelle più piccole): il basilico adatto proviene tradizionalmente dalle coltivazioni poste sulle alture di Pra’, quartiere genovese. Questo basilico, dal sapore delicato e non mentolato (qualità fondamentale), gode attualmente della denominazione di origine protetta (DOP) e per quello indicato per le sue qualità alla realizzazione del pesto tradizionale;
  • Olio extra vergine di oliva della Riviera Ligure. L’olio prodotto in Liguria è tipicamente delicato (non “pìzzica” e non “attacca in gola”, soprattutto quello prodotto da olive di cultivar “Taggiasca” della Riviera dei Fiori) e non molto fruttato, o meglio, “fruttato dolce” ossia con le note d’amaro e piccante (presenti in ogni olio extravergine di qualità) non prevaricanti sulla sensazione di dolcezza, e per le sue qualità, è a Denominazione di Origine Protetta (DOP);
  • Pinoli italiani, meglio se pisani. (Quelli della pineta di S. Rossore, alla foce dell’Arno, sono i migliori, perché i più fini, delicati e dolci, sia al profumo che al gusto: i più pregiati.)
  • Parmigiano-Reggiano stravecchio (invecchiato almeno 30 mesi): deve essere molto stagionato, anche perché in questo modo non si “cuoce” quando si aggiunge l’acqua di cottura della pasta per allungare le crema;
  • Fiore sardo (formaggio pecorino sardo DOP) con almeno 10 mesi di stagionatura.
  • Aglio di Vessalico (Comune della bassa Valle Arroscia imperiese), caratterizzato dal gusto meno intenso;
  • Sale marino grosso, meglio se quello particolarmente intenso delle saline di Trapani.

È importante l’utilizzo di ingredienti di pregio poiché contengono le caratteristiche che garantiscono un sapore finale equilibrato e di qualità.

Preparing pesto – Adriano CC BY-SA 3.0

Preparazione

Preparazione del pesto, schiacciato col pestello di legno nel tradizionale mortaio di marmo

Tradizionalmente il pesto viene prodotto con l’uso di mortaio e pestello. Il pesto che si trova comunemente in commercio è prodotto con il frullatore, mentre artigianalmente si usa ancora il mortaio. L’uso del frullatore ha la controindicazione di ossidare le foglie di basilico e di scaldare la crema. Usando il frullatore la ricetta consiste semplicemente nel miscelare i vari ingredienti, fino a ottenere una consistenza fine e cremosa, con solo l’aggiunta finale dell’olio. È comunque preferibile mantenere l’ordine di miscelazione della ricetta eseguito col mortaio. Le varianti possibili sono dovute alle diverse proporzioni fra gli ingredienti.
La ricetta con il mortaio invece è codificata dalla tradizione, si presta tuttavia a numerose varianti dovute al gusto personale. Ecco la versione più accreditata:
Il mortaio tradizionale è di marmo, con il pestello in legno. Le foglie di basilico vengono lavate e lasciate ad asciugare, facendo attenzione a non stropicciarle per evitare la rottura delle vescicole, con conseguente annerimento e alterazione del gusto.
Nel mortaio si schiacciano gli spicchi d’Aglio (1 spicchio ogni 30 foglie circa di basilico).
Si aggiungono poi le foglie di Basilico, intervallandone con modesti strati di Sale, che essendo grosso svolge il ruolo abrasivo necessario per triturare efficacemente le foglie, che andranno dunque schiacciate tramite movimento rotatorio del pestello contro le pareti del mortaio, coordinando movimenti in un verso del pestello con la rotazione del mortaio nel verso opposto afferrando con la mano libera le sue caratteristiche “orecchie”.
Quando il basilico inizia a stillare un liquido verde e si presenta come una crema uniforme, si aggiungeranno i Pinoli e successivamente i formaggi preventivamente grattugiati (nelle proporzioni: 2/3 di Parmigiano e 1/3 di Fiore Sardo, circa, per non rendere il gusto troppo squilibrato, essendo il Fiore di gusto più deciso), amalgamando bene il tutto sempre con movimenti rotatori del pestello e con l’eventuale ausilio di un cucchiaio.
Infine si aggiunge l’Olio d’Oliva versato a goccia, che svolge, anche, un ruolo antiossidante.
La lavorazione dovrebbe terminare il prima possibile proprio per evitare l’ossidazione degli ingredienti. Il pesto deve apparire come una crema densa di colore uniforme verde chiaro. I diversi ingredienti devono essere mescolati per raggiungere equilibrio nei gusti, senza prevalenze.
Prima di utilizzarlo come condimento per la pastasciutta, a seconda della consistenza finale ottenuta, il pesto può essere allungato con l’acqua di cottura della pasta sino a ottenere una consistenza più diluita, che comunque non deve mai essere troppo liquida. Il pesto da aggiungere al minestrone non necessita di questa procedura finale.

Principali variazioni

La ricetta è soggetta a variazioni a seconda delle tradizioni locali e dei gusti personali. Può essere molto varia la proporzione fra i due formaggi: si può andare da una proporzione metà e metà, fino all’utilizzo del solo parmigiano; l’ideale è circa un terzo di Fiore Sardo e due terzi di Parmigiano. La quantità di aglio può essere ridotta per coloro che ne ritengono il suo gusto troppo forte – oppure gli spicchi possono essere privati dell’anima centrale – ma l’utilizzo dell’Aglio di Vessalico garantisce sia la delicatezza, sia la digeribilità.
Se non si dispone del Basilico di Pra’ o si ha un basilico mentolato, si può ricorrere al sistema di sbollentare leggermente le foglie di basilico in acqua bollente per addolcirne il gusto. Questo sistema è inoltre utile se si vuole conservare il basilico per lunghi periodi.
Soprattutto nell’entroterra, per questioni legate alla disponibilità, era uso, contravvenendo al disciplinare, utilizzare le noci al posto dei pinoli, opportunamente selezionate e private della pellicina che ha un gusto amarognolo. Alcune varianti miscelano pinoli e noci in percentuali variabili.
In un’antica versione arricchita e ancora diffusa, sono aggiunti nella pasta, insieme al pesto, anche patate e fagiolini bolliti.
Nell’entroterra, soprattutto quelle genovesi e savonesi, essendo in antichità difficile reperire l’olio, si soleva aggiungere al suo posto burro essendo i latticini, al contrario, facilmente reperibili.
Una cuciniera del 1893, in mancanza del basilico, consiglia di usare maggiorana (persa) e prezzemolo (porsemmo).
Nonostante le numerose varianti non ufficiali, la ricetta del vero pesto alla genovese riconosciuta dal disciplinare è una, la prima indicata.

Utilizzo

Il pesto alla genovese si usa per condire primi piatti come gli gnocchi di patate o le trofie avvantaggiate, il minestrone alla genovese e la pasta, tipo le trofiette, le bavette, le linguine, le trenette, i corzetti, le tagliatelle, i tagliolini, le lasagne e il risotto.

Riconoscimenti e disciplinare

Basilico genovese DOP di Pra’
Il Pesto alla genovese è inserito tra i Prodotti agroalimentari tradizionali liguri (PAT) riconosciuti dal Ministero delle politiche agricole alimentari e forestali.
La denominazione “pesto genovese” è soggetta a un disciplinare messo a punto dal Consorzio del Pesto Genovese.
Spesso nei grandi punti di distribuzione (soprattutto fuori della Liguria) si trova pesto in cui l’olio d’oliva extra vergine è sostituito con altri oli di semi, oppure si utilizza salsa di noci al posto degli originali pinoli oppure anacardi, acido citrico, prezzemolo per dare colore verde e fagiolini per aumentare la massa o altri ingredienti che ne diluiscono o alterano il sapore. Questi prodotti, pur diffusi e gradevoli al palato, differiscono anche notevolmente dal gusto e dalle proprietà organolettiche del pesto genovese autentico.
I marchi presenti nella GDO vendono anche la versione “senza aglio” che, tuttavia, non corrisponde dell’autentico pesto genovese della tradizione.
Dal 2007 si tiene a Genova, con cadenza divenuta biennale, il campionato del mondo di pesto al mortaio.

Ricetta regionale della Liguria

Ajvar

Ajvar – Nikola Škorić CC BY-SA 2.5

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Ajvar (in Cyrillic language Аjвар or Айвар) is a sauce ubiquitous in the Balkans and the neighboring areas (such as Friuli-Venezia Giulia)

Ingredients

  • peppers,
  • hot peppers,
  • eggplants,
  • garlic.

According to the quantity of capsaicin present, it can be of sweet, burning, or very hot varieties. Ajvar can be spread on bread and mainly used as a condiment for meat and ćevapčići.
Etymology
The word ajvar comes from the Turkish word havyar, meaning salted fish eggs, and shares that origin with the word caviar.

How to make Ajvar

The preparation of ajvar is quite complicated and requires a certain amount of manual labor, especially skinning the cooked peppers. The cultivar mainly used is a bell pepper called roga, which is horned, broad, red, horn-shaped, has a skin relatively easy to remove, and ripens at the end of September. Traditionally prepared in mid-autumn, when peppers are most abundant, family and neighbors often gather to prepare them.
Cooked on a plate over the stove or in the oven, the peppers and eggplant are allowed to cool so that it is easier to remove the skins and seeds. They are then either blended or cut into pieces. Next, the mush is stewed in a big pot for many hours by adding sunflower seeds, oil, and garlic. Finally, salt and sometimes vinegar is added, and they are packed and sealed in glass containers.
Homemade Ajvar from Leskovac and Macedonian Ajvar is registered at the World Intellectual Property Organization to protect its brand name.
Production
Most of the ajvar is prepared by hand, and industrial production remains very modest. Ajvar is part of the so-called zimnica (winter foods), including pickled peppers and tomatoes.

Places of origin Serbia, North Macedonia – Regional Recipe from Friuli

Capuliato – Sun-dried tomatoes traditional condiment

Capuliata – Leydaa Pubblico dominio

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Ingredients

  • sun-dried tomatoes

Tomato capuliato is a traditional condiment of Sicilian cooking made of sun-dried tomatoes, mainly linked to Vittoria’s territory, in the Libero Consorzio Comunale di Ragusa. The original name in Sicilian means chopped, however in other areas of Sicily, but not in the Plain of Vittoria where it was born and thanks to which it spread, it is also called capuliata, mainly to refer to a dish of seasoned pasta, as if it was referred to a “spaghettata.”
The term capuliato, or capuliatu in Sicilian, has the meaning of ammorsellato or chopped and typically refers to the type of processing. Thus capuliati tomatoes or the “capuliato di Carne” are chopped meat, the classic minced beef.

Etymology

The word’s origin is present in Vulgar Latin, where the voice capulare meant “to make into small pieces.” From Latin, it evolved in Aragonese with the verb “capolar,” which remained the same in Catalan and Castilian Spanish. Even today, in Spain as well as in Sicily, the term refers to ammorsellare.

History

Initially, in Europe, the tomato was used as an ornamental plant, and it is only in the 1800s that it spread in the gastronomical field. It is agreed that capuliato was born and extended from Vittoria, a city where since its origin, the territory was easily exploitable at an agricultural level. Among the areas of diffusion of the product, Vittoria has always been the one with the most significant production and tradition of the vegetable; in fact, there is one of the largest fruit and vegetable markets in Italy. Capuliato was born when preserving tomato sauce, and the greenhouse cultivation of tomatoes was not yet practiced. The recipe quickly spread to other areas of the province and the nearby Gela. Since tomatoes were not available in winter, they were dried and processed in the warm months, usually July and August, and preserved to season pasta and bread during the year.

How to make Capuliato

The tomatoes are first washed, then cut, salted, and dried in the sun. Then they are minced, usually with a meat grinder, and generally put in oil, in a marinade which includes basil or oregano, and other flavors added according to taste, such as garlic, hot pepper, or bay leaves under the lid of the jar.
In the classic Victorian preparation, ingredients such as basil or hot pepper are chopped together with tomatoes, added as the raw material is ground.
Capuliato is mainly used to season pasta, bread, or bruschetta and flavor the typically stuffed focaccias of Ragusa, the scacce.
Most common recipes
The classic pasta al capuliato provides garlic, extra virgin olive oil, and capuliato, with the addition of basil or parsley at the end (elements that once, however, were not readily available in winter). It can be enriched with fried bread crumbs, bread crumbs, grated cheese, and other seasonings. Long pasta is indicated, usually are cooked the classical spaghetti n°5. The bread is stuffed with capuliato, extra virgin olive oil, and ingredients such as cheese, oregano or basil, anchovies, hot pepper.
Industrial production and availability
Many producers are present, especially in Vittoria, the homeland of capuliato, thanks to which the product is readily available in delicatessens or supermarkets throughout Sicily, especially in the south-east. The tradition of homemade production is still strong.

Regional Recipe from Sicily
Production area originally in Vittoria, then in the other municipalities of the Free Consortium of Ragusa, Gela, Niscemi, and other regions of south-eastern Sicily

ITALIANO

Da Wikipedia, l’enciclopedia libera.
Il pomodoro capuliato è un condimento tradizionale della cucina siciliana a base di pomodori secchi, legato in particolare al territorio del comune di Vittoria, nel Libero consorzio comunale di Ragusa. Il nome originale in siciliano significa tritato, tuttavia in altre zone della Sicilia, ma non nella Piana di Vittoria dove è nato e grazie alla quale si è diffuso, viene chiamato anche capuliata, soprattutto per riferirsi ad un piatto di pasta condito, come se ci si riferisse ad una “spaghettata”.

Il termine capuliato, o capuliatu in siciliano, ha il significato di ammorsellato o triturato e si riferisce tipicamente al tipo di lavorazione. Quindi pomodori capuliati o il “capuliato di carne”, cioè la carne trita, il classico macinato di carne.

Etimologia

L’origine della parola è presente nel latino volgare, dove esisteva la voce capulare che voleva dire “fare a pezzettini”. Dal latino, si è evoluta nell’ara­go­ne­se col verbo “capolar”, rimasto uguale in ca­ta­la­no e in spa­gno­lo ca­sti­glia­no. Ancora oggi, tanto in Spagna quanto in Sicilia, il termine si riferisce all’ammorsellare.

Storia

Inizialmente in Europa il pomodoro venne usato come pianta ornamentale ed è solo nell’800 che si diffuse a livello gastronomico. Si concorda sul fatto che il capuliato nasca e si diffonda da Vittoria, città dove fin dalle sue origini il territorio era facilmente sfruttabile a livello agricolo. Tra le aree di diffusione del prodotto, Vittoria è sempre stata di gran lunga quella con maggior produzione e tradizione dell’ortaggio, infatti vi è situato uno dei più grandi mercati ortofrutticoli d’Italia. Il capuliato nacque quando ancora non erano praticati i metodi di conservazione della salsa di pomodori e la coltivazione in serra di quest ultimi. La ricetta si è diffusa velocemente in altre aree della provincia e nella vicina Gela. Non avendo a disposizione i pomodori in inverno, questi venivano essiccati e lavorati nei mesi caldi, solitamente luglio e agosto, e conservati per poi condire la pasta e il pane durante l’anno.

Preparazione e utilizzo

I pomodori vengono prima lavati, poi tagliati, salati ed essiccati al sole. Successivamente vengono macinati, solitamente con un tritacarne e generalmente posti sottolio, in una marinatura che prevede basilico o origano, e altri sapori in aggiunta a seconda dei gusti che possono essere per esempio aglio, peperoncino o delle foglie di alloro sotto al coperchio del barattolo.
Nella classica preparazione alla vittoriese, ingredienti come il basilico o il peperoncino sono triturati assieme ai pomodori, aggiunti man mano che si macina la materia prima.
Il capuliato viene utilizzato principalmente per condire pasta, pane o delle bruschette, ma anche per insaporire le focacce ripiene tipiche del ragusano, le scacce.

Ricette più comuni

La classica pasta al capuliato prevede aglio, olio extra vergine d’oliva e capuliato, con l’aggiunta di basilico o prezzemolo alla fine (elementi che però una volta non erano facilmente reperibili in inverno). Può essere arricchita con molliche di pane fritte, pangrattato, formaggio grattugiato ed altri condimenti. Sono indicate le paste lunghe, solitamente si cucinano i classici spaghetti n°5. Il pane è farcito con capuliato, olio extra vergine di oliva e ingredienti come formaggio, origano o basilico, acciughe, peperoncino.

Produzione industriale e reperibilità

Sono ormai diverse le aziende produttrici, soprattutto a Vittoria, patria del capuliato appunto, grazie alle quali il prodotto è facilmente reperibile nelle salumerie o supermercati di tutta la Sicilia, soprattutto sud orientale. Rimane ancora forte la tradizione della produzione casereccia.

‘Ndruppeche – Ragù Potentino – Ragù from Potenza

‘Ndruppeche – Ragù Potentino – Redshift87 Public Domain

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Ingredients

  • beef, usually beef muscle
  • pork, in the form of salami pezzente
  • olive oil
  • cloves of garlic

The ragù potentino, known as ‘ndruppeche (in Italian snag or stumble), is the mixed meat ragù of the traditional cuisine of the city of Potenza.
The name of this sauce is that by eating the dishes in which it is used, one stumbles, metaphorically, in the pieces of meat composing it.

How to make ‘Ndruppeche – Ragù Potentino – Ragù from Potenza

The ‘ndruppeche, or ragout all’intoppo, is prepared by browning beef, usually beef muscle, and pork, in the form of salami pezzente, in olive oil with cloves of garlic; the meat is then boiled for a few hours with the addition of tomato sauce, are often added to the meat of other animals such as lamb or white meat such as rabbit and poultry. This preparation’s characteristic flavor comes from the salame pezzente, a very fatty homemade salami flavored with dried bell pepper powder, fennel seeds and preserved after light smoking.
Usage and gastronomy
This type of ragout is combined with fresh pasta, prepared, according to the culinary tradition of southern Italy, without the use of the egg, in the typical formats of Lucanian cuisine, the most used formats of pasta are fusilli, Ferretti, and strascinati. A typical dish is made of a mixture of Ferretti and strascinati seasoned with ‘ndruppeche. The preparations in which this sauce is used are usually flavored by adding fresh, dried, or pickled chili pepper and, traditionally in the period of Carnival, horseradish rhizome grated at the moment.

Regional Recipe from Basilicata
Production area Potenza

Pagliata

Rigatoni con la Pagliata – Prof.lumacorno CC BY-SA 4.0

Ingredients

  • small intestine of the suckling calf or ox

Description

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Pajata (in Romanesco) or pagliata (in Italian) is the term used to identify the small intestine of the suckling calf or ox, which is used mainly for the preparation of a typical pasta dish, rigatoni con la pajata, for which the second part of the small intestine, called “digiuno,” is used.

How to make Pagliata

It is traditionally used in Roman cuisine. The traditional recipe calls for the intestines to be washed but not deprived of their kilo so that, once cooked, they can form a sauce with a strong, acrid flavor, to which tomato is added.
Pagliata is also consumed in Umbria, especially in the area of Terni, Spoleto, Foligno, and Valnerina, and in the Marches, in particular, in the province of Ancona, Camerino, Fabriano, and Macerata, where it is roasted on the grill, and it is traditionally known as spuntature.
The classic preparation includes the pagliata accompanied by rigatoni with sauce, but it can also be eaten as a second course cooked in the oven, stewed, or grilled.

Regional Recipe from Lazio, Marche, Umbria

Pappardelle sul cinghiale – Pappardelle on wild boar

Pappardelle al cinghiale – Cassinam CC BY-SA 2.5

Description

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
The pappardelle on wild boar (also known as “pappardelle al cinghiale”) is a typical dish of the Maremma Grossetana, Maremma Laziale, Alta Tuscia and Alta Valnerina, lands rich in game, which has spread to the rest of Tuscany, Umbria and inland areas of the Marche, in the area of Genga.
For the dish’s preparation is needed, you need the homemade pappardelle made with flour and eggs. You also need wild boar meat, some ripe mashed (or, even better, preserved), tomatoes, red wine (possibly one of the areas as the Morellino di Scansano or Montecucco), onion, celery, carrots, rosemary, bay leaves, salt, pepper, chili pepper, and extra virgin olive oil, possibly from Maremma. Some people add olives.
The wild boar, cut into small pieces, must be marinated in red wine with onion, chopped carrots, celery, and laurel, for at least 12 hours. Afterward, the used herbs are recovered, washed, chopped, and fried in a pan; once browned, add the wild boar meat and cook for about fifteen minutes, adding rosemary, hot pepper, and a pinch of salt and pepper.
Immediately after add the tomato puree previously obtained, a glass and a half of red wine, and a drizzle of oil, cover the pan and cook for about 4 hours, taking some breaks from time to time during cooking.
Cook the pappardelle for about three minutes in abundant boiling salted water, adding a tablespoon of oil. Once drained, they season with wild boar ragout, and the dish is ready.

Pappardelle with Wild Boar Recipe – traditional Tuscan recipe.

Preparation time: 30 minutes
Cooking time: 3 hours and 15 minutes
Total time: 3 hours and 45 minutes
Difficulty: medium
Cost: medium
Servings size: 4 people

Ingredients

500 gr. of pappardelle
400 grs. of tomato puree
500 gr. of wild boar meat cut into small pieces
Half a liter of red wine
2 carrots
2 onions
2 ribs of celery
1 garlic clove
3 bay leaves
1 sprig of rosemary
1 tuft of parsley
Cloves
Juniper berries
Extra virgin olive oil
Salt to taste
Pepper to taste

How to make Pappardelle sul cinghiale – Pappardelle on wild boar

First of all, cut the boar meat into pieces, put it in a pan and add the red wine, garlic, a carrot, an onion, and a rib of celery. Cover the pan with plastic wrap and marinate for at least 12 hours in the refrigerator.
After the 12 hours have passed, make sure the meat’s marinating is ok, then take it out and drain it well. At this point, cut the meat further into small pieces.
Now prepare the soffritto, chop the celery, carrot, and onion well, and put everything in a pan adding extra virgin olive oil.
For the next step in preparing pappardelle al cinghiale, you need to take the meat and brown it for a few minutes over high heat until it takes on a uniform color. At this point, take a glass of red wine, better if chianti, and blend it with the wine.
Now, add the tomato puree, salt, and pepper, stirring with a spoon. Cover the pan with a lid and let everything cook on low heat for about 3 hours.
Before you can enjoy the pappardelle with wild boar, the last thing to do is to boil the pappardelle in plenty of water, once cooked. Then, add the wild boar sauce or wild boar ragout that you want to prepare previously.
Here you are ready to taste the pappardelle with wild boar made according to the traditional Tuscan recipe.

Regional Recipe from Tuscany, Umbria, Lazio
Production area Maremma

Ragù sardo – Sardinian ragout

Difficulty: Average Time: 1 hour 30 minutes

Ingredients

extra virgin olive oil;
lard;
onion;
the meat of steer and pig;
parsley;
basil;
tomato paste;
salt;
pepper

How to make Ragu Sardo

In a saucepan, put the lard and the onion minced, brown all with some oil.
Add the meat cut to dice with the parsley and the basil minced, unite the tomato paste, salt, pepper, and cook for 1 hour.
You can season any pasta.

Regional Recipe from Sardinia

Recipe Aglio Olio e Peperoncino – Oil, Garlic, and Peperoncino

Ingredients

1 lb. spaghetti
3 oz. extra virgin olive oil
3 cloves garlic
parsley
peperoncino
salt

How to make Aglio, Olio e Peperoncino:

One of the oldest ways to dress pasta was with raw oil and garlic. Later, add ingredients like peperoncino.

How to make the olio, Aglio e peperoncino spaghetti (oil, garlic, and peperoncino):

Saute the garlic in a skillet with oil, peperoncino until golden brown. You may remove the browned garlic if desired

Mix cooked spaghetti briskly in the same skillet, add a generous tablespoon of finely chopped parsley, toss the oglio, Aglio e pepperoncino, and serve.

Note:
Spaghetti for olio, Aglio e peperoncino should be undercooked before tossing with the sauce. If they prove to be too dry, add a ladleful of the cooking water.

As a variation on this recipe, add some anchovies (6 salted fillets, washed and cut into pieces) to the garlic and oil, add a handful of black or green olives cut into pieces, and saute together until golden brown.

Another version of this sauce, commonly used in Southern Italy, is made by browning 3-4 tbs. of breadcrumbs in oil and garlic and adding some more peperoncino to taste before sauteing with the pasta.

Serves 4

SUGGESTION

You can use the Chili Peppers in Extra Virgin Olive Oil by Francesco Vastola at Maida, sold in North America by Gustiamo.com.

Regional recipe from Rome and Latium.

Trenette Al Pesto – Trenette With Pesto

Trofie al pesto – Adriano CC BY-SA 3.0

Ingredients

1 pound trenette
2 To 3 – cups fresh basil leaves
3 tablespoon Pine nuts
2 cloves garlic
1/4 tablespoon salt
1/2 c extra virgin olive oil
1/2 c Parmesan cheese, grated

How to make the Trenette al Pesto:

“Pesto”: the word pesto means “pounded,” as traditionally pesto was made by grinding the ingredients together by hand in a marble mortar and pestle.

To make the pesto, place all ingredients except oil and pasta in a marble mortar—the process to a puree. While processing in the mortar, gradually add oil until absorbed. Toss with the trenette. Serve hot. If you don’t have a marble mortar, use a food processor or blender, the resulting pesto will be delicious also, even if not at the same level of high culinary delight.

To preserve pesto for a long time: you can freeze the pesto, prepared without the parmesan cheese, in small plastic cups, Tupperware containers, or ice cube trays. Keep the pesto in the freezer until you need it. When you need to use it, bring the frozen pesto to room temperature, add the Parmesan cheese, and your pesto is ready to toss over hot pasta!

A bit of history of Italian cuisine:

For centuries, Ligurian sailors plied the seas as part of the spice trade, bringing Europe the Far East and Africa’s exotic products. When they returned from their long, arduous voyages, the sailors had had their fill of fish and spicy food. Instead, they wanted fare that spoke of their homeland, made from vegetables fresh from the gardens and farms that cling to the Ligurian hillsides. As a result, the dish that is now most closely identified with this region is pasta al pesto, noodles bathed in an intensely green and fragrant sauce.

The pesto recipe took the form we know in the mid-nineteenth century: the recipe first appears in writing in the Ratto brothers’ 1865 Cuciniera Genovese, where it is described as “pesto is a mince of garlic and basil” and used as a sauce with which “to dress all varieties of pasta.”

Ligurians almost make a religion of their devotion to pesto sauce and its main ingredient, fresh basil. While they generally favor fresh herbs in their cooking, it is basil that inspires the most interest.  There is, however, no uniformity of opinion as to the best pesto recipes or their best uses. Every village, and probably every family, has its own recipe for pesto sauce and its favorite pasta shape to use with the sauce. For example, the Genoese prefer a sharp, pungent pesto sauce with ravioli filled with veal and cheese. Many people opt for a mild pesto sauce, sometimes with cream or butter added. In many areas, the preferred “pasta al pesto” is a trenette, a plump local linguine version. In other areas, they dispense with the pasta and add the pesto to their local version of minestrone or fish soup.

The raw ingredients of pesto sauce are common to all these recipes: fresh basil leaves, cheese (either Parmigiano Reggiano or Pecorino), pine nuts or walnuts, garlic, olive oil, and salt and pepper. The great debate, and the great fun, about pesto, is deciding on the proper proportions to combine these ingredients and add any extras. Ultimately, with some experimentation, you can make pesto that suits your tastes exactly, just like every cook in Liguria.

One thing to remember: to make an authentic pesto, you need to use a marble mortar, try yourself, and you will see the difference in the pesto.

Serves 6

Regional recipe from Liguria

Savor Di Frutta – Fruit Sauce

Ingredients

6 lbs. grapes
5 lbs. fruit (pears, apples, peaches, quinces)
3 oz. walnuts

How to make the Savor Di Frutta – Fruit Sauce:

Savor means “flavor” in Venetian dialect; it is an ancient recipe from central Italy, usually prepared in the fall.

Remove the grapes from stems, wash well, then press out juice. Let the juice sit for 24 hours. Clean the fruit and cut it into pieces. Chop the nuts. Put all the fruit and nuts into a large pot, add the grape juice, cover, and cook on low heat for two hours, stirring often. The savor is ready when the volume is half of what it was initially. Cool and refrigerate.

Savor di Frutta is served with boiled meat and as a filling for sweets, with squash Tortelli and with polenta. If only must (that is, grape juice before it turns into wine due to fermentation) is used, the resulting syrup is called sapa (or saba) and is used for fillings or as a mix for cocktails.

Note:
This spiced fruit may also be preserved, though pasteurization is necessary.

Regional recipe from Veneto

books-on-italy.com

books-on-italy.com

books-on-italy.com

books-on-italy.com