Trieste cuisine – Cucina di Trieste

Original Bosnian ćevapčići with ajvar and lepinja (somun) bread. – RaffaelloCC BY-SA 3.0

Trieste cuisine is a multicultural cuisine in which different ethnic groups are expressed through centuries of Central European and port-related influence. Typical dishes are, for example, the Jota, Minestra de Bisi Spacai, Rotolo di Spinaci in Straza, Sardoni Impanati, Capuzi Garbi, Capuzi Garbi in Tecia, Vienna sausages, goulash, ćevapi, and Fritto Misto Mare or as desserts Presnitz, Fave Triestine, Titola, Crostoli Speciale, Strucolo de Pomi, Kugelhupf, Rigo Jancsi, and the Triester Torte.

Typical local types of Trieste include the buffet, a small urban tavern with ready-made local dishes served quickly (in addition to “Italian” dishes, fresh ham, meatloaf, goulash, roast meat, Kaiserfleisch, tongue, stilt, and belly meat). The osmizza, a lived original form of the Central European or Habsburg wine tavern with short, blocked opening times for the consumption and sale of mainly cold farm products from the Trieste Karst.

The “Capo Triestino” (also “Capo in B” or “Capo in bicchiere”), which intellectuals like James Joyce or Italo Svevo are said to have appreciated, is considered a local coffee specialty. This small cappuccino in a glass cup is usually taken at the bar.

Of course, the local seafood from the Adriatic is also used in this city. While the tuna fishing has declined, the anchovies from the Gulf of Trieste off Barcola (in the local dialect: “Sardoni barcolani”) are a unique and sought-after delicacy. These small fish have a particularly delicate taste, and white meat and are considered a particularly rare specialty. Sardoni Barcolani is marinated, baked, and served grilled.

Ražniči – Pork skewer

Ražniči – Pork skewer – Ivana Sokolović CC BY 2.0

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
The ražnjići or ražniči (in Serbian Cyrillic ражњићи) is a typical dish of Serbia and the countries of the former Yugoslavia but widely also spread in the provinces of Trieste and Gorizia and, less, in that of Udine.


  • pork,
  • lamb
  • sheep

How to make Ražniči – Pork skewer

They are skewers of meat, onions, and peppers cooked on the grill. The most used meat for ražnjići is pork, but it can also be prepared with lamb or sheep meat. They are usually served with ajvar, a spicy sauce made from ground red peppers and spices. They are often served with ćevapčići, oblong meatballs made of ground meat mixed with spices.

Regional Recipe from former Yugoslavia but widely also spread in the provinces of Trieste and Gorizia and, less, in that of Udine.


Ajvar – Nikola Škorić CC BY-SA 2.5

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Ajvar (in Cyrillic language Аjвар or Айвар) is a sauce ubiquitous in the Balkans and the neighboring areas (such as Friuli-Venezia Giulia)


  • peppers,
  • hot peppers,
  • eggplants,
  • garlic.

According to the quantity of capsaicin present, it can be of sweet, burning, or very hot varieties. Ajvar can be spread on bread and mainly used as a condiment for meat and ćevapčići.
The word ajvar comes from the Turkish word havyar, meaning salted fish eggs, and shares that origin with the word caviar.

How to make Ajvar

The preparation of ajvar is quite complicated and requires a certain amount of manual labor, especially skinning the cooked peppers. The cultivar mainly used is a bell pepper called roga, which is horned, broad, red, horn-shaped, has a skin relatively easy to remove, and ripens at the end of September. Traditionally prepared in mid-autumn, when peppers are most abundant, family and neighbors often gather to prepare them.
Cooked on a plate over the stove or in the oven, the peppers and eggplant are allowed to cool so that it is easier to remove the skins and seeds. They are then either blended or cut into pieces. Next, the mush is stewed in a big pot for many hours by adding sunflower seeds, oil, and garlic. Finally, salt and sometimes vinegar is added, and they are packed and sealed in glass containers.
Homemade Ajvar from Leskovac and Macedonian Ajvar is registered at the World Intellectual Property Organization to protect its brand name.
Most of the ajvar is prepared by hand, and industrial production remains very modest. Ajvar is part of the so-called zimnica (winter foods), including pickled peppers and tomatoes.

Places of origin Serbia, North Macedonia – Regional Recipe from Friuli


Pljeskavica – Biso CC BY 3.0


  • lamb,
  • beef,
  • pork,
  • veal
  • kaymak,
  • ajvar,
  • urnebes

How to make Pljeskavica

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Pljeskavica (pronounced: plièscaviza; in Serbian, Пљескавица) is a trendy dish of the Balkan Peninsula, originating in Leskovac (Serbia). It is mainly eaten in the Western Balkan states (Serbia, Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Macedonia). It can also be found in Romania and Bulgaria or, more rarely, in some Balkan fast-food restaurants in Germany and Austria.
It is made with a mixture of meats (two or more lamb, beef, pork, and veal) grilled with onions. It is made from the same dough as ćevapčići. It can be served alone or with side dishes (as is often the case in Serbia) or even in a pita. It is usually topped with kaymak, ajvar, or urnebes.
The most famous one is leskovačka pljeskavica (Leskovac’s pljeskavica): usually made of beef or pork, it is served very spiced and with a side dish of onions. There are two other widespread versions: šarska pljeskavica (pljeskavica of Šar Mountains), made of beef stuffed with kashkaval (a cheese similar to caciocavallo), and hajdučka pljeskavica (pljeskavica of hajduk Mountains), made of meat mixed with smoked pork.

Regional Recipe from Friuli (Gorizia)

Rosa di Gorizia – Rose of Gorica

Rosa di Gorizia – Rose of Gorica – Cate sherpa Public Domain

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
The Rose of Gorizia is a local variety of radicchio (Cichorium intybus of the subspecies sativum) typical of the area of Gorizia in Friuli-Venezia Giulia. It is recognized as one of the Traditional Agri-foodstuffs of Friuli and Venezia Giulia and as a Slow Food Presidium.


Rosa di Gorizia is a variety of chicory characterized by an intense red color or red color with nuances leading to pink according to the type of selection. Leaves are broad and arranged in the shape of an open rose. The taste is only slightly bitter, as opposed to Veneto (radicchio from Castelfranco, Chioggia, Treviso, Verona), and it is crunchy to the palate. The variety of Rosa di Gorizia with a more delicate taste is called “Canarino” and is probably obtained by a cross with Trieste’s blond chicory. Finally, the Canary has yellow-colored foliage and an even sweeter taste.

Historical notes

The history of Rose of Gorizia dates back to the times of Hapsburgs. The first written sources appeared in the volume “Gorizia – la Nizza austriaca” of 1873, written by Baron Carl von Czoernig-Czernhausen, who lived in Gorizia in the second half of 1800. In the volume, among the description of legumes cultivated in the city, a “reddish chicory” is produced in the plain between Gorizia and Salcano and, to a lesser extent, in the city’s peripheral areas.
Rosa di Gorizia had great importance for the city’s economy, mainly based on agriculture, and relied a lot on producing this particular chicory. Older farmers of the area remember they always made it because it was one of the few and sure sources of income during the cold winter season in Gorizia.
The origin of the Rose in the territory of Gorizia refers to a Mr. Vida. She escaped a plague epidemic that broke out in Veneto by bringing the seeds with him to Gorizia. Thus, Vida could have transported seeds of red radicchio from Veneto, or perhaps those of Chioggia, which once sown in the lands of Gorizia, would have given origin to the Rose of Gorizia.
Another hypothesis dates back to the origin of the seeds to the countess of Gorizia, Leukardis, from 1046 to 1072 abbess of Castel Badia’s monastery where the nuns practiced in the cultivation of flowers and vegetables, which, because of the harsh climate, needed particular care. Given the very close relationship between what today are the territories of Val Pusteria and Gorizia, one can imagine that there were frequent exchanges of products between the two places.

Diffusion and use

Rose was cultivated mainly in the plain between Gorizia and Salcano (today in Slovenia); however, the cultivation has been reduced over the years due to the enlargement of urban centers. Therefore, its production is not intensive, which guarantees the product a niche market, making the Rose Italian excellence protected. Today it is sold at very high prices because of the increased need for a workforce. In recent years, the Rose of Gorizia has had absolute commercial growth in the world’s haute cuisine. It is the most expensive radicchio globally, sought after by chefs from all over the world for its beauty and gastronomic peculiarities. Its beauty and perfection in shape, together with the coast’s crunchiness and sweetness, make it the winter period’s special ingredient. It appears in the kitchens of the most famous European and worldwide restaurants, which consider it precious as truffle and therefore worthy of matching with caviar and other precious ingredients. An example of the spreading of the Rose of Gorizia is the Cookitraw event of 2010, which took place on the Collio Goriziano, where 20 chefs worldwide celebrated it in their creations table. Chefs of the caliber of Renè Redzepi, Yoshihiro Narisawa, Massimo Bottura have interpreted it in the various elaborations of the kitchen, showing how it can be used in multiple forms, from cooked to raw, up to the version in extra virgin olive oil, which is also protected and became a Slow Food Presidium.

Radicchio, slightly bitterish, is to be tasted raw, cut as little as possible to avoid oxidation, and accompanied by boiled potatoes, boiled beans, boiled eggs, or seasoned with olive oil, wine vinegar, and salt. Even the tiny root is good to eat, cut thinly, and added to a salad.

How to make Rosa di Gorizia – Rose of Gorica: Production

Rose is sown in the period between March and half June, in the waning moon, which often coincides with the sowing of cereals, particularly oats, to avoid the growth of weeds.
Seeds are mixed with sand (Isonzo sand is preferred) to form a solid mass distributed on the ground. The ideal soil is of alluvial origin, gravelly, and rich in iron, subject, during the summer, to long periods of drought. During summertime, the clods are broken at least twice by harrowing, and we wait for the arrival of the first cold weather. The harvesting of radicchio, done by hand, head by head, with all the roots, occurs from the end of November to the beginning of December, and it begins after the first frosts. At the time of harvesting, the heads of Rosa are almost the same as the heads of common radicchio: the color is green. After harvesting, the charges are kept in closed environments, at a temperature of about ten degrees, gathered in bunches of ten plants each, and laid on straw, grass, or sand. Heads must be wetted, and as they develop, outer leaves must be removed. Forcing ends in the days before Christmas, the period in which radicchio appears on the table.
After the forcing, the selection of seeds also takes place. During the harvesting at the beginning of December, farmers do not collect the roots, but they leave some plants on the ground. The choice of the mother plants is based on personal experiences and sensibility according to each plant’s external aspect. These selections depend on the product’s quality, which is not entirely identical from producer to producer. The color of the finished product varies according to the type of selection made.
When the plant has reached a certain height of growth, about 70 centimeters, farmers strip most of its leaves, allowing wider sprouting. In June, the blue flowers sprout, and the harvesting of the stems begins. Tied in bundles, they are left to dry upside down, and by August, the beating takes place. With this process, the dried flowers containing seeds are removed. The material is first passed through a sieve, the dras, and then, using a special wooden tray, the vintuluza, the remaining impurities are removed; finally, the final cleaning is done. The seed obtained must remain at rest, skip a productive season, and preserve and improve genetics and germinability.

Cultural importance

The Rose is the result of the selections made by the various local families of farmers that followed one another during the centuries. The choice for the production of seeds is carried out by growers in a practical way and follows a long and established tradition, to which growers stick.
In the past, the seeds obtained by these selections were never sold or given to other families. Still, they were jealously kept to keep the patent on the product received, which became a family characteristic. Nowadays, every farmer is very jealous of his seeds, just like the families of the past. However, the declarations produced by some producers who have dedicated themselves to this type of cultivation for more than 25 years are preserved In the form of self-certification. They hand down the seeds from generation to generation, reproducing them from year to year after selecting them.
Protection of the product
The Rose of Gorizia is recognized as a PAT (Prodotto Agroalimentare Tradizionale – Traditional Food Product) of the Friuli-Venezia Giulia Region. The local producers are gathered in the Producers Association Radicchio Rosso di Gorizia, Rosa di Gorizia and Canarino, established in 2010 to enhance the uniqueness of the product and remember the traditional boundaries of cultivation within the municipality of Gorizia. The city itself has given the Producers Association Rosa di Gorizia e Canarino, the municipal denomination, De.Co., and has entrusted the same to supervise the production discipline’s respect.[unclear] The association has obtained Italian Collective Mark’s certification and is waiting for the recognition as European Collective Mark. This radicchio is considered the most expensive in the world. Being used by chefs of haute cuisine worldwide, it is copied and reproduced in territories outside its borders, with very different cultivation techniques that make it very different from the original. In defense of this product’s originality and quality, the Slow Food Association has taken sides and collaborates to protect this gastronomic specialty.

Regional food from Friuli-Venezia Giulia
Production area Municipality of Gorizia

Frittata di luppolo selvatico – Wild hop omelette

Frittata di luppolo selvatico – Wild hop omelette – Prof.lumacorno CC BY-SA 4.0


  • wild hop shoots
  • Hop sprouts (or tops)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Frittata di hop selvatico (in Piedmontese frità ëd luvertin, in Lombard fartada cui luartis) is an omelette made from wild hop shoots. It is a recipe common in most of northern Italy.

How to make Wild hop omelet: Preparation – Washing hop tops

Luvertin omelette: washing wild hop shoots – Prof.lumacorno CC BY-SA 4.0

Hop sprouts (or tops) are usually harvested in spring, often at the sides of country roads where the plant, a climbing plant, twists around brambles and bushes. After being washed, the hop tops are chopped up and briefly sautéed with oil and butter. Removed from the pan, then mixed with eggs and grated Parmesan cheese in a bowl. The mixture thus obtained is then put back in the pan for the final frying, turning it a couple of times to get homogeneous cooking on both sides. Sprouts instead of frying can also be gently blanched; another variation is to cook the omelet in the oven, but in this case, the required cooking time becomes longer. The taste of omelets if sprouts are still very tender is delicate, whereas it turns bitter when harvested at a more advanced stage of their development.
Besides being used as a second course, you can use a hop omelet as an appetizer. It is one of the typical Piedmontese marenda sinòira, that is, the late afternoon meal that replaces dinner.

Regional Recipe from Piedmont, Lombardy, Friuli
Diffusion Northern Italy

Crauti, capuzi, sacrao, salcrauti, sarcrauti, verdòle

Crauti – Bratwurst – Kobako CC BY-SA 2.5

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Sauerkraut (German: Sauerkraut, literally “sour grass” or “sour vegetable”) is a side dish typical of German cuisine, made from cabbage, finely chopped, and subjected to lactic fermentation.

They are also called salcrauti or sarcrauti (as an adaptation of the German origin), sour cabbage, or even, in Venezia Giulia, sour cabbage; in Trieste, they are called capuzi.
Sauerkraut is one of the most frequent products in the Germanic diet, to the point of forming abroad, together with potatoes and sausages, the nutritional cliché generally attributed to Germans.

How to make Crauti, capuzi, sacrao, salcrauti, sarcrauti, verdòle

The preparation is based on cabbage, whose leaves are cut in small strips and subjected to a controlled natural lactic fermentation, for about two months, with cooking salt, pepper, and aroma. The process, mainly used as a preservation method, changes the organoleptic profile of the vegetable and gives sauerkraut its typical strong and slightly sour taste.
The result is a food rich in vitamins and mineral salts. Sauerkraut promotes digestion because it strengthens the intestinal flora, therefore keeping away pathogenic bacteria and viruses. This result can only be obtained if they are eaten raw. In fact, in the cooking process, all the live ferments and thermolabile vitamins are crucial for our intestinal flora and are compromised.

Sauerkraut belongs to the gastronomic tradition not only of German-speaking areas such as Austria, Germany, some Swiss cantons, and South Tyrol but also of countries such as Slovenia (“kislo zelje”), Hungary, Croatia, Poland (kapusta kiszona), Russia (Квашеная капуста, kvašenaja kapusta), Ukraine, Belarus, Czech Republic (kysané zelí), Bosnia and Herzegovina and Serbia (kiseli kupus). Sauerkraut is also used in traditional dishes in Romania, called varză murată in the Romanian language. In Italy, they are common in ex-Habsburg territories such as Lombardy-Veneto (in some variants of cassoeula) and Friuli-Venezia Giulia (with the name of “capuzi”), as well as in western Emilia (with the name of “sacrao”). In Trentino, and in particular in the area of Tesino, and in the part of Veneto which borders Tesino, besides sauerkraut, it is possible to find Verde (or verdòle), an almost identical preparation, except for the cut of the leaves (cut in small squares) and for the duration of fermentation (40-50 days).

Regional Recipe from Region Trentino-South Tyrol, Lombardy, Veneto, Friuli-Venezia Giulia, Emilia


Strucchi – Dorothy61n1 CC BY 3.0

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
The strucchi name and spelling vary depending on the areas of Friuli and Giulia. They can be called strucchi, struchi, struki, strucoli, or strucoleti. However, they are typical sweets of Friuli-Venezia Giulia, in the form of dumplings made with the same filling of the gubana and originating in the Valleys of Natisone area considered, along with the gubana itself, a typical sweet of these areas.


The etymology of the name is uncertain, even though apple strudel (Apfelstrudel) in Trieste’s cooking means “strucolo de pomi” (apple strudel). Therefore the word could generally indicate a cake with a filling. There is a cake with a similar name, struklji or struki, but not made as a bundle but with a dough roll in Slovenia. They can be fried or boiled (cooked).
If they are fried, the external dough used to make them is a short pastry, a sort of ravioli made with the short pastry in the center that contains the filling.
If they are cooked, their outer dough is potatoes, and the topping is of melted butter, sugar, and cinnamon. The stuffing for cooked and fried strucchi is variable but generally includes walnuts, hazelnuts, pine nuts, raisins, lemon rind, sugar, and grappa.

Regional Recipe from Friuli-Venezia Giulia
Production area Natisone Valleys

Putizza (dolce)

Putizza (dolce) – Michael R Perry CC BY 2.0


  • three doughs

How to make Putizza (dolce)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
The putizza or potizza (in Slovenian: potica) is a typical Karst area desert between Gorizia and Trieste. Potica is also very common in Slovenia, where it is considered a real “queen of festive dishes”.
Putizza is one of the many variants of rolled cakes of Austro-Hungarian origin, together with gubana and presnitz, and other types. It differs for the richness of the filling, for the shape, working with three doughs, and the leavening, which gives more softness.
Other similar rolled cakes are Hungarian bejgli, Yiddish rugelach, Turkish nokul, Polish makowiec, and Serbo-Croatian orahnjača orechovník.

Regional Recipe from Friuli Venezia Giulia


Gugelhupf – Vargenau CC BY 2.5


  • yeasty dough
  • raisins,
  • almonds,
  • Kirschwasser cherry brandy


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Gugelhupf or Kugelhupf is a term used in Southern Germany, Austria, Switzerland, Tyrol, and Alsace to refer to a type of cake. In the Czech Republic, it is called bábovka, in Poland babka, in Croatia, Slovenia, Bosnia, and Herzegovina, and in Serbia, it is called kuglof. In Italy, because of the long bond with the Austro-Hungarian Empire of that city, the cake is also part of Trieste and Gorizia’s typical cuisine. Its name is cuguluf. Generally, the Gugelhupf has the shape of a toroid, like a doughnut. Like the Jewish dessert Kugel, the word “Gugelhupf” is derived from the Middle High German term “Kugel,” meaning ball or globe.

How to make Gugelhupf

A common type of Gugelhupf consists of a soft, yeasty dough that contains raisins, almonds, and Kirschwasser cherry brandy; some variations include candied fruit and nuts. It is baked in a unique circular pot, initially made of glazed ceramic, now used to bake Bundt cakes. It is usually eaten for breakfast or during the coffee break.

It was chosen as the dessert to represent Austria at Café Europe, an initiative of the European Union’s Austrian Presidency for European Day 2006.

Regional Recipe from Friuli (Trieste and Gorizia)