Sise delle monache – Nun’s Sise

Sise delle monache – Freegiampi CC BY-SA 3.0

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Sise delle monache (or Tre monti) are a typical Abruzzo sweet produced in the town of Guardiagrele, in the province of Chieti.

It is a cake composed of two layers of sponge cake, filled with custard, with the shape of three protuberances.

Origins

The origin of the name is not sure: among the various legends, one wants that this expression derives from the behavior of some nuns of the monastery of the Clarisse of Guardiagrele, where they prepared the cakes, which inserted in the center of the chest a bump so as to make less obvious breasts.
More likely, the typical shape of this cake would refer to Gran Sasso d’Italia (2912 m a.s.l.), Majella (2793 m a.s.l.), and Sirente-Velino (2487 m a.s.l.) which are the three mountainous massifs of Abruzzo, the highest of the whole Apennine chain. This also justifies the name Tre Monti (three mountains), with which the cake is also known.

Arrosticini

Arrosticini Campo Imperatore – Ra Boe CC BY-SA 3.0

Da Wikipedia, l’enciclopedia libera.

Gli arrosticini (detti anche rustell’rustellearrustelle in diversi dialetti abruzzesi) sono spiedini di carne di pecora, tipici dell’Appennino, in particolare della cucina abruzzese. Sono strettamente legati alla tradizione pastorale dell’Abruzzo e al conseguente consumo di carne ovina.

Diffusi in tutta la regione soprattutto a partire dal secondo dopoguerra, il loro luogo d’origine è spesso ricondotto alla fascia sud-orientale del Gran Sasso d’Italia, nella zona dalla Piana del Voltigno (Villa Celiera), al confine tra le province di L’Aquila, Teramo e Pescara.

Storia

Gli arrosticini sono espressione culinaria della pastorizia stanziale e non della transumanza, come si è ritenuto in passato: leggenda narra che furono inventati negli anni 1930 da due pastori del Voltigno, area montuosa compresa tra Carpineto della Nora, Villa Celiera e Civitella Casanova, che tagliarono carne di pecora vecchia in piccoli pezzi per non sprecare cibo, prendendone anche dalle zone vicine alle ossa dell’animale. I piccoli pezzettini di carne sarebbero diventati spiedini venendo inseriti su bastoncini di legno di “vingh”, una pianta che cresce spontanea lungo le rive del fiume Pescara, per poi essere cucinati alla brace all’aperto. Il metodo di preparazione degli arrosticini, originariamente pensato per cercare di rendere appetibili i tagli di carne meno pregiati, ottenne risultati così apprezzabili da essere applicato ben presto ai tagli migliori.

Secondo la tradizione pastorale il vero arrosticino abruzzese è composto di carne ovina, idealmente di carne di pecora giovane chiamata in dialetto “ciavarra” o di montone castrato. Ad oggi gli arrosticini sono ampiamente consumati anche al di fuori dell’Abruzzo e in alcune zone d’Italia si sono affermati nella vendita di grande distribuzione, spesso venendo meno alla qualità e alle caratteristiche care alla tradizione abruzzese.

Immagine esplicativa della preparazione artigianale. – GiuseppeFichera CC BY-SA 4.0

Tipologie

La tipologia più diffusa e consumata di arrosticini è quella in cui essi sono uniformi, costituiti da cubetti di carne di circa 1 cm di lato infilati su di uno spiedino di legno (tipicamente di betulla o bamboo) lungo circa 20 cm. Sono molto diffuse anche altre varianti in cui la carne è tagliata con il coltello a tocchetti irregolari di varia dimensione interponendo strati di carne molto magra a tocchettini di grasso, sempre di pecora, che li rende morbidi e profumati. Quest’ultimo tipo di arrosticini per risultare apprezzabile necessita di carne di ottima qualità affinché essa possa sostenere una cottura più lunga.

Negli ultimi anni, soprattutto nella Val Pescara, si stanno diffondendo anche gli arrosticini di fetc (fegato). In questo caso si alterna un pezzo di carne con una foglia d’alloro. Un’altra variante prevede l’aggiunta di una piccola fetta di cipolla. A livello commerciale è possibile reperire molti prodotti che utilizzano la denominazione di “arrosticino” nonostante siano utilizzate carni di suino, bovino, pollo o, molto raramente, coniglio.

Questo è possibile per l’assenza di una denominazione di origine protetta del prodotto, che come da tradizione deve essere solo di carne ovina, preferibilmente di castrato, ovvero di montone sottoposto a castrazione e con età compresa tra i sei mesi ed i due anni oppure di femmina giovane che non abbia ancora partorito.

Arrosticini Campo Imperatore – Ra Boe CC BY-SA 3.0

Come Preparare gli Arrosticini

La preparazione consiste nel tagliare la carne in tocchetti e infilarli in spiedini (in dialetto detti «li cippe» oppure «li cippitill»). Gli arrosticini sono poi cotti alla brace, normalmente utilizzando un braciere dalla caratteristica forma allungata a canalina definito, in base al dialetto della zona, «fornacella», «furnacella», «rustillire», «canala» o «canalina». La forma della canalina garantisce la concentrazione di un’alta temperatura nella porzione di spiedino dove è posizionata la carne, lasciando invece a temperatura ambiente le due estremità dello spiedino, così da non scottare al contatto né la mano né la bocca del consumatore. Durante la cottura la carne sarà quindi salata ed eventualmente insaporita ulteriormente con un ramo di rosmarino cosparso di olio extravergine d’oliva o di olio al peperoncino a seconda dei gusti.Arrosticini in cottura

Per la riuscita dell’arrosticino, molto dipende anche dalla cottura e dalla griglia utilizzata, dalla temperatura del fuoco, ma soprattutto dal costante controllo del cuoco. A seconda delle preferenze, gli arrosticini possono avere diversi gradi di cottura e salatura. Sono disponibili anche fornacelle elettriche di piccolo e medio ingombro, tuttavia i risultati in termini di gusto e piacevolezza al palato non sono confrontabili con quelli ottenibili nella cottura alla brace. Sono da evitare cotture al forno e in padella perché non garantiscono il mantenimento della morbidezza della carne unitamente alla rosolatura della sua superficie.

Arrosticini al Campo Imperatore – © Ra Boe / Wikipedia CC BY-SA 3.0 de

Abbinamenti e modalità tradizionali di consumo

La quantità media adatta ad un adulto è di circa 15-20 unità. Gli arrosticini sono solitamente accompagnati da fette di pane casereccio cosparse di olio extravergine di oliva («pane ‘onde») e si abbinano egregiamente a vini rossi tra cui classicamente le numerose varianti del Montepulciano d’Abruzzo.

Gli arrosticini possono essere agevolmente preparati ovunque e sono pertanto spesso considerati cibo di strada. Sono consumati abitualmente sfilando uno ad uno i pezzetti di carne tenendoli stretti tra i denti e tirando verso l’esterno il legno dello spiedino. Tradizione praticata è cuocere e consumare gli arrosticini all’aperto, immersi nella natura in scampagnate, arrampicate in montagna, gite al lago o situazioni simili. Molto presenti anche in sagre e feste di paese.

Tutela

Gli arrosticini sono inseriti nell’elenco dei Prodotti agroalimentari tradizionali italiani (P.A.T.) del Ministero delle politiche agricole alimentari e forestali. Nell’elenco del 2016 sono iscritti al n. 9 per la Regione Abruzzo.

Ricetta tipica della regione Abruzzo

Arrosticini negli USA

You can buy arrosticini online in the USA.

One of the places selling them is abruzzonyc.com

Bocconotto – Small cake filled with chocolate and almonds

Bocconotto from Castel Frentano – I8a4re CC BY-SA 3.0

From wikipedia.org
A small cake filled with chocolate and almonds.

History

According to recent studies, the term bocconotto is a gastronomic slang derivation of bocconetto that appears for the first time in Giovan Battista Crisci’s Lucerna de Corteggiani, published in Naples in 1634, a cookbook that includes many recipes, mainly spread in central-southern Italy.
Antonio Latini, in his cookbook Lo Scalco alla Moderna will make more explicit use of the term bocconotto; for example, in the recipe “Bocconotti alla Genovese,” but in reality, it is not sweet:
“You will make the shortcrust pastry, with Butiro, Zuccaro, and Rossi d’ova; you will make Bocconotti, according to your preference, filling them with Midolla, and Cocuzzata piccata, you will add, Rossi d’ova fresche, Cinnamon, a little Acqua d’odore; you will make Bocconotti; you will fry them in good lard or Butiro; cooked, they will be, you will be able to serve them, as a dish, or as a gift of dishes, as you like, with Zuccaro on top, or Ambivera; which will be a very noble dish” (Lo Scalco… cit. , p. 356).
In the XVIII century, it will be Il Cuoco Galante (Naples, 1773) by Vincenzo Corrado to give us new sweet recipes of bocconotto. For example, we find the “Bocconotti alla Caramella” (Ibidem, pg. 215) and the “Bocconotti alla Regina” (Ibidem, pg. 199)
“Of other delicate pastes – [Bocconotti] Alla Regina. – Made small cases of short pastry and baked in the oven, and they will be filled with egg paste, put some black cherries in the middle, and covered with meringue paste, they will be baked in the oven, and served”.
This latter recipe, however, anticipates by more than sixty years that of the “Bucchinotte d’amarene” by Ippolito Cavalcanti (Cucina Teorico-pratica, Naples, 1839):
“Piglia nu ruotolo de sciore, miezo de zucchero, e miezo de nzogna, dudece rossa d’ova, ni pucurillo de sale, e mbasta buono, stienne chesta pasta co lo laniaturo, ne farraje na pettola doppia quanto a no dudice carrino, and make the bucchinotte in the shapes, add the black cherry mixture and then the other pasta, so make the bucchinotti, cook them in the oven and then turn them out of the mould and put them on the plate”.
Apart from this historical news, which deals with recipes spread in the various southern Italian regions in the past centuries, then evolving into many variants of this product, in different places have arisen around the bocconotto some fanciful legends, now also part of popular folklore.

Contemporary Legends

The popular legend dates back to the first elaboration of this sweet at the end of the eighteenth century, in the territory of Abruzzo. In that period, began the importation of chocolate and coffee. In the town of Abruzzo (Castel Frentano), a maid, to pay homage to her master, greedy for these two new products, invented a cake which reminded her of a coffee cup (of course without handle and lid), making the outside with short pastry and filling the inside with liquid coffee and chocolate. At the first cooking, he saw that the filling remained too runny, so he decided to thicken it with almonds (imported in Abruzzo from Puglia) and egg yolks and cover the “cup” with a lid which at the end of cooking dusted with powdered sugar. When the master tasted the cake, he was enraptured and asked his maid what its name was; the woman, who had not given it any name, improvised by calling it “Bocconotto” since it eats it in one mouthful. The size of the bocconotto remained small until the ’50s of the 20th century when they began to increase. It also added it to the stuffing of a coffee bean in memory of the coffee initially used and aromatizing the filling.
Instead, according to others, bocconotto would have originated from the Murgia hinterland peasants who, forced to live in narrow spaces, adapted culinary needs to their reality. The small size of bocconotti, the possibility of being kept for many days in a natural environment, and their high nutritional level have made them for years one of the strong points of the southern culinary tradition.
According to others, dolcetto has Calabrian origins. In fact, in Cosenza, since 1300, were prepared very similar sweets, the “Varchiglie.” Originally this cake was ready by nuns for the tables of bishops. The Varchiglia is a pastry casket that contains a filling made of almond flour and sugar covered with chocolate. The sweet is still prepared in unique metal forms in the shape of a boat from which it probably derives its name. The bocconotti, then, more simply, were prepared in the houses of Cosenza where the large metal forms were replaced by small forms, always metal, and replacing the expensive filling of almond flour with a more readily available homemade grape jam, and the sweet chocolate with icing sugar that covers them.
Still today, the recipe’s tradition is handed down from family to family, with many variations.

Origin of the name

The term bocconotto seems to derive from the term pasticciotto, according to a combination of terms made by Giovan Battista Crisci, for example in the title: “Pasticciotti in boccone ripieni di cose dolci, e zuccaro” (Lucerna… cit., p. 314).
Subsequently, Crisci simplifies the use of the expression pasticciotti in boccone through the term ‘bocconetti’ as can be seen in the following titles:
“Pasticciotti in boccone ripieni di gelo di cotogni, e di zuccaro” (Ivi, p. 246)
“Bocconetti di gelo di cotogna, e conserva di cetro” (Ibid., p. 318).
Therefore, it is evident the use of the term bocconetto as an alternative to pasticciotto. From here, it is easy to understand how this term is subsequently changed into bocconotto, changing only one vowel. See, for example, the above mentioned recipes of Antonio Latini, Vincenzo Corrado and Ippolito Cavalcanti.

Composition

There is a sweet variant and a savory variant.
The sweet version is always made of short pastry with a filling that can be honey or royal jelly or custard or jam or chocolate according to regional variations.
The savory version varies both in the filling and in the wrapping: short pastry is replaced by puff pastry, and a mixture of mushrooms, chicken giblets, sweetbreads, and truffles is used instead of chocolate and almonds.
In the Brindisi area version, the filling of jam is usually made of pear or quince.

Traditional food products

The Bocconotto of Castel Frentano is a food product recognized by the Abruzzo region, characterized by the presence in the filling of chocolate, cinnamon, and toasted almonds. There is also a variant from Pescara equal to Castel Frentano with the only addition of Centerba liqueur.
In Abruzzo, we find the Bocconotto of Montorio al Vomano, typical sweet of the territory and pride of local pastry, is characterized by filling grape jam Montepulciano grapes, flavored with toasted almonds and chopped chocolate and cinnamon powder.
The Apulian variant has a filling of almonds and black cherries enclosed in the same compact casing.
Typical is the bocconotto of Bitonto. It traces back to the Benedictine nuns of Bitonto, where the recipe provides a filling of ricotta cheese and candied fruit and less sugar in the dough.
Calabria reported for the list of PAT the Bucconotto of Mormanno, province of Cosenza (bucchinotto in the vernacular form) of 4 cm in diameter be filled with chocolate or jam and dusted with powdered sugar.
In Calabria, Bocconotto di Amantea has an oval shape with the outside made of shortcrust pastry covered with powdered sugar and filled with chocolate, chopped toasted almonds, sugar, cinnamon, and cloves. For some years in the same place has also been created and proposed a version made of ice cream.

Ingredients

For the oil pastry
6 Eggs (5 yolks + 1 whole)
150 g Seed oil (or mild olive oil)
150 gr Sugar
300 gr Flour 00 (more flour to work the mixture)
1 Lemon (grated rind)

For the filling
Grape jam (about 400 g)
80 gr Almonds (peeled, toasted, and chopped)
80 gr Dark chocolate
q.b. Cinnamon powder
1 lemon (grated peel)

How to make Abruzzo Bocconotti

Prepare the filling of the bocconotti Abruzzese.
Take a large bowl, inside put the black grape jam, add the almonds, after roasting and chopped in a food processor, chopped dark chocolate, the grated rind of a lemon, cinnamon powder and mix well.
You will get a nice full-bodied filling, necessary to prevent it from leaking during cooking.
Cover the bowl with plastic wrap and refrigerate.
Now move on to the shortcrust pastry. Take a large bowl and pour the sifted flour inside. Form the classic fountain. Add sugar and oil.
If you have a light and delicate olive oil, you can use it without problems; otherwise, replace it with seed oil to avoid the final taste is too strong and not pleasant.
Then add the eggs (medium), 5 yolks + 1 whole egg, and the grated zest of a lemon. Immediately mix all the ingredients first with a fork. When the dry ingredients have absorbed the liquid ones, pour all the mixture onto a pastry board.
If you notice the dough is still too sticky, add flour by eye, depending on how dry one absorbs liquid ingredients.
You want the dough to be soft and absolutely not hard. Continue adding flour only until you reach the consistency of a soft and homogeneous shortbread.
Form the bocconotti. Take the aluminum molds, grease, and flour them.
Roll out the shortcrust pastry, not thick but not too thin either, and line each small form you have available, leaving half of the dough aside to line the forms once filled.
In the center of the bocconotto, put a teaspoon of grape jam, the right amount. Continue until all are filled. Roll out half of the shortcrust pastry you set aside.
Cut out many disks of similar size to the size of the molds used. Cover by overlapping the disc on the mold, removing the excess dough if it was too large.
Bake the bocconotti in a preheated oven at 170° for about 15-20 minutes. As soon as they begin to color slightly, take them out of the oven and let them cool completely.
Once cold, serve with a generous sprinkling of powdered sugar. The original bocconotti Abruzzese are ready to be enjoyed.

Regional Recipe from Abruzzo, Apulia, Calabria

ITALIANO

Da wikipedia.org
Piccolo dolce di pasta frolla farcito con cioccolato e mandorle

Storia

Secondo studi recenti, il termine bocconotto è una derivazione gergale gastronomica di bocconetto che compare per la prima volta nella Lucerna de Corteggiani di Giovan Battista Crisci, edito a Napoli nel 1634, un ricettario che comprende moltissime ricette, diffuse principalmente nell’Italia centro-meridionale.
Antonio Latini, nel suo ricettario Lo Scalco alla Moderna farà un uso più esplicito del termine bocconotto; ad esempio nella ricetta «Bocconotti alla Genovese», ma in realtà non si tratta di un dolce:
«Farai la pasta frolla, con Butiro, Zuccaro, e Rossi d’ova; ne formerai Bocconotti, a proportione, riempiendoli di Midolla, e Cocuzzata piccata, v’aggiungerai, Rossi d’ova fresche, Cannella, un po’ d’Acqua d’odore; ne formerai Bocconotti; gli friggerai in buono Strutto ò Butiro; cotti, che saranno, te ne potrai servire, per Piatto, ò per Regalo de’ Piatti, come più di piacerà, con Zuccaro sopra, overo Ambivera; che sarà un Piatto assai nobile» (Lo Scalco… cit., p. 356).
Nel XVIII secolo, sarà Il Cuoco Galante (Napoli, 1773) di Vincenzo Corrado a fornirci nuove ricette dolci del bocconotto. Ad esempio, troviamo i «Bocconotti alla Caramella» (Ivi, p. 215) e i «Bocconotti alla Regina» (Ivi, p. 199)
«Delle altre paste delicate – [Bocconotti] Alla Regina. – Fatte piccole cassettine di pasta frolla, e cotte al forno, s’empiranno di pasta di uova faldicchere, mettendoci in mezzo delle amarene giulebbate, e coverte con pasta di merenghe, si faranno rappigliare al forno, e si serviranno.»
Ricetta, quest’ultima, che peraltro anticipa di oltre un sessantennio quella delle «Bucchinotte d’amarene» di Ippolito Cavalcanti (Cucina Teorico-pratica, Napoli, 1839):
«Piglia nu ruotolo de sciore, miezo de zucchero, e miezo de nzogna, dudece rossa d’ova, ni pucurillo de sale, e mbasta buono, stienne chesta pasta co lo laniaturo, ne farraje na pettola doppia quanto a no dudice carrino,e furmarraje li bucchinotte dint’a lle forme, nge miette la mbottunatura d’amarene e po l’auta pasta, accussì farraje li bucchinotti, li farraje cocere a lo furno e po li sformarraje accongiannoli dinto a lo piatto»
A parte queste notizie storiche, che trattano ricette veicolate nelle varie regioni meridionali italiane nei secoli scorsi, evolvendo poi in molteplici varianti di questo prodotto, in diversi luoghi sono sorti attorno al bocconotto alcune leggende fantasiose, oramai diventate anch’esse parte del folklore popolare.

Leggende contemporanee

La leggenda popolare fa risalire la prima elaborazione di questo dolce alla fine del Settecento, nel territorio abruzzese. In quel periodo infatti iniziò l’importazione di cioccolato e caffè. Si narra che in un paese d’Abruzzo (Castel Frentano) una domestica, per omaggiare il suo padrone, goloso di questi due nuovi prodotti, inventò un dolce che ricordava la tazzina di caffè (naturalmente senza manico e coperchio) realizzando l’esterno con la pasta frolla e riempiendo l’interno con caffè e cioccolato liquidi. Alla prima cottura vide che il ripieno rimaneva troppo liquido; allora decise di addensarlo con mandorle (che in Abruzzo venivano importate dalla Puglia) e tuorli d’uova e di ricoprire la “tazzina” con un coperchio che a cottura ultimata spolverò di zucchero a velo. Quando il Padrone assaggiò il dolce ne rimase estasiato e chiese alla sua domestica come si chiamava; la donna, che non gli aveva dato nessun nome, improvvisò chiamandolo “Bocconotto” visto che si mangiava in un boccone. Le dimensioni del bocconotto infatti sono rimaste piccole fino agli anni ’50 del XX secolo, quando iniziarono a aumentare. Fino a quell’epoca si aggiungeva al ripieno anche un chicco di caffè, a ricordo del caffè messo inizialmente e per aromatizzare il ripieno.
Secondo altri invece il bocconotto sarebbe originario dei contadini dell’entroterra murgiano che, costretti a vivere in spazi stretti ed angusti, adattarono le esigenze culinarie alla propria realtà. Le ridotte dimensioni dei bocconotti, la possibilità di essere conservati anche per molti giorni in ambiente naturale, nonché il loro alto grado nutrizionale, ne hanno fatto per anni uno dei cavalli di battaglia della tradizione culinaria meridionale.
Secondo altri ancora il dolcetto avrebbe origini calabresi. A Cosenza infatti già dal 1300 venivano preparati dei dolci molto simili, le “Varchiglie”. In origine questo dolce veniva preparato dalle monache per le tavole dei vescovi. La Varchiglia è uno scrigno di pastafrolla che racchiude un ripieno di farina di mandorle e zucchero e che viene infine ricoperto di cioccolato. Il dolce è ancora preparato in apposite forme di metallo a forma di barca da cui probabilmente, deriva il nome. I bocconotti, quindi, più semplicemente, venivano preparati nelle case dei cosentini dove le grandi forme di metallo vennero sostituite da piccole formine, sempre di metallo, e sostituendo il costoso ripieno di farina di mandorle con una più reperibile marmellata d’uva fatta in casa, e la preziosa cioccolata con lo zucchero a velo che li ricopre.
Ancora oggi la tradizione della ricetta si tramanda di famiglia in famiglia, con numerose varianti.

Origine del nome.

Il termine bocconotto sembra derivare dal termine pasticciotto, secondo un accostamento di termini operata da Giovan Battista Crisci, ad esempio nel titolo: «Pasticciotti in boccone ripieni di cose dolci, e zuccaro» (Lucerna… cit., p. 314).
Successivamente, Crisci semplifica l’utilizzo dell’espressione pasticciotti in boccone attraverso il termine ‘bocconetti’ come si evince dai seguenti titoli:
«Pasticciotti in boccone ripieni di gelo di cotogni, e di zuccaro» (Ivi, p. 246)
«Bocconetti di gelo di cotogna, e conserva di cetro» (Ivi, p. 318).
Dunque, appare evidente l’utilizzo del termine bocconetto in alternativa a pasticciotto, e da qui, è facile intuire come questo termine sia mutato successivamente in bocconotto, cambiando solo una vocale. SI vedano, ad esempio, le ricette sopra citate di Antonio Latini, Vincenzo Corrado e Ippolito Cavalcanti.

Composizione

Esiste una variante dolce ed una variante salata.
La variante dolce è sempre fatta di pasta frolla con un ripieno che può essere di miele o pappa reale o di crema pasticcera o di marmellata o di cioccolato secondo le varianti regionali.
La versione salata varia sia nella farcitura che nell’involucro: la pasta frolla è sostituita dalla pasta sfoglia e si usa un impasto di funghi, rigaglie di pollo, animelle e tartufo, anziché il cioccolato e le mandorle.
Nella versione dell’area brindisina, il ripieno di confettura è solitamente di pera o di mela cotogna.

Prodotti agroalimentari tradizionali

Il Bocconotto di Castel Frentano è un prodotto agroalimentare la cui tipicità è riconosciuta dalla regione Abruzzo, caratterizzato dalla presenza nel ripieno di cioccolato, cannella e mandorle tostate. Esiste anche una variante pescarese uguale a quella di Castel Frentano con la sola aggiunta del liquore Centerba.
Sempre in Abruzzo troviamo il Bocconotto di Montorio al Vomano, dolce tipico del territorio e vanto della pasticceria locale, è caratterizzato dal ripieno di marmellata d’uva, solitamente uva montepulciano, che viene aromatizzata con mandorle tostate e tritate, cioccolato e cannella in polvere.
La variante pugliese, prevede un ripieno di mandorle e amarene, racchiuso nel medesimo involucro compatto.
Tipico il bocconotto di Bitonto, che si fa risalire alle monache benedettine di Bitonto, dove la ricetta prevede un ripieno di ricotta e canditi e meno zucchero nell’impasto.
La Calabria ha segnalato per l’elenco dei PAT il Bucconotto di Mormanno provincia di Cosenza (bucchinotto nella forma dialettale) di 4 cm di diametro che può essere ripieno tanto di cioccolato che di marmellata e spolverato di zucchero al velo.
Sempre in Calabria il Bocconotto di Amantea ha una forma ovaleggiante con l’esterno in pasta frolla ricoperta da zucchero a velo con un ripieno di cioccolato, mandorle tostate tritate, zucchero, cannella e chiodi di garofano. Da qualche anno nella medesima località ne è stata anche creata e proposta una versione a base di gelato.

Ingredienti

Per la frolla all’olio
6 Uova (5 tuorli + 1 intero)
150 gr Olio di semi (oppure olio d’oliva delicato)
150 gr Zucchero
300 gr Farina 00 (piu’ altra farina per lavorare il composto)
1 Limoni (scorza grattugiata)

Per il ripieno
Confettura di uva (circa 400 gr)
80 gr Mandorle (pelate, tostate e tritate)
80 gr Cioccolato fondente
q.b. Cannella in polvere
1 Limone (scorza grattugiata)

Come preparare i bocconotti

Preparate il ripieno dei bocconotti abruzzesi.
Prendete una ciotola capiente, all’interno mettete la confettura di uva nera, aggiungete le mandorle, dopo averle tostate e tritate in un minipimer, il cioccolato fondente tritato a pezzetti, la scorza grattugiata di un limone, la cannella in polvere e mescolate bene.
Otterrete una farcia bella corposa, necessaria per evitare che fuoriesca durante la cottura.
Coprite la ciotola con una pellicola per alimenti e mettete in frigo.
Ora passate alla pasta frolla. Prendete una ciotola capiente e versate la farina setacciata all’interno. Formate la classica fontana. Aggiungete zucchero e l’olio.
Se avete un olio d’oliva leggero e delicato potete usarlo senza problemi, altrimenti sostituitelo con olio di semi per evitare che il gusto finale sia troppo forte e non gradevole.
Unite poi le uova (medie), 5 tuorli + 1 uovo intero, e la scorza grattugiata di un limone. Mescolate subito tutti gli ingredienti tra loro prima con una forchetta. Quando gli ingredienti secchi avranno assorbito quelli liquidi versate tutto il composto su una spianatoia.
Stendete la frolla, non spessa ma nemmeno troppo sottile, e rivestite ogni formina che avete a disposizione lasciando da parte metà dell’impasto per rivestire le formine una volta farcite.
Al centro del bocconotto mettete un cucchiaino di confettura di uva, la giusta quantità. Proseguite fino a farcirli tutti. Stendete la metà frolla che avevate messo da parte.
Ricavate tanti dischetti di dimensioni simili alla grandezza degli stampini usati. Ricoprite sovrapponendo il dischetto sullo stampino, eliminando l’impasto in eccesso se fosse troppo grande.
Cuocete i bocconotti in forno preriscaldato a 170° per circa 15-20 minuti. Appena cominciano leggermente a colorire sfornate subito e fate completamente raffreddare.
Una volta freddi servite con una generosa spolverata di zucchero a velo. I bocconotti abruzzesi originali sono pronti per essere gustati.

Some content adapted and converted from https://blog.giallozafferano.it/

Pizza di Pasqua

Pizza di Pasqua – my aunt CC BY-SA 3.0

Ingredients

  • flour
  • pecorino cheese
  • parmesan cheese
  • hard-boiled eggs
  • ciauscolo
  • red wine

Description

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Easter pizza in some areas is also called crescia di Pasqua or Easter cake or cheesecake or crescia brusca. It is a savory leavened bread typical of many regions of central Italy. It is made of flour, eggs, pecorino cheese, parmesan cheese, traditionally served for breakfast on Easter morning or as an appetizer during Easter lunch, accompanied by blessed hard-boiled egg ciauscolo red wine or, again, served in the picnic of Easter Monday.
The cheese Easter pizza is a standard product of Marche and Umbria (where it has obtained the recognition P.A.T. or traditional food product). There is also a sweet version.
This product’s peculiarity is its shape, given by the particular mold in which it is leavened and then baked in the oven: originally in earthenware, today in aluminum; it has a flared shape.

Origins

Easter pizza originated in medieval times by the nuns of Santa Maria Maddalena of Serra de’ Conti in Ancona. The name crescia (by which it is known in the whole Marche region) refers to the dough’s remarkable “growth,” that is, the leavening process, during baking in the oven.
The most ancient information about the preparation of crescia di Pasqua is found in a recipe book written by the nuns and dated back to 1848, titled Memorie delle cresce di Pasqua fatte nel 1848 and, later on, in an anonymous recipe book of 1864 titled Il Cuoco delle Marche.

The recipe over the centuries
Ancient recipe

Ancient cookbooks dating back to the 1800s contain the following recipe: “for three grows, and one for the Father Confessor, we need 16 pounds of flour, one half of milk, 40 eggs, 3 ounces of salt, pepper, one and a half ounces of fat, 3 pounds of dry cheese and 8 pounds of fresh cheese, including the eyes, two sheets of foil, and half a Paolo of good saffron, and this is enough for 24 people and the Father Confessor”. The 40 eggs included in this recipe were meant to commemorate the 40 days of Lent.
A recipe reported in the Memorie delle cresce di Pasqua made in 1848, instead, indicates: “flour 50 pounds, grated old cheese 10 pounds, fresh cheese as judged, milk three jugs and a half, oil 4 pounds and a half, as many eggs as needed, salt 1 pound and 3 ounces, pepper 3 ounces.”

Modern recipe

Nowadays, the main ingredients are flour, eggs, grated pecorino cheese, grated Parmesan cheese (or grana padano), pecorino romano cheese in pieces, extra virgin olive oil, salt, pepper, natural yeast, and milk. Some recipes also include other ingredients, such as saffron, or their substitution with similar ingredients, such as lard or butter instead of oil and Emmental cheese in pieces instead of pecorino cheese.
The dough must be kneaded for a long time to allow the glutinous mesh formation and promote leavening. The dough is then divided and put into special molds that, covered and kept in a humid place, are subject to a long process of leavening and then cooked, always according to tradition, in a wood-burning oven (in ancient times, they were brought to the baker to cook).

The sweet variant of Easter pizza – cantalamessa CC BY-SA 3.0

The sweet variant of Easter pizza
In Umbria and Marche’s areas, there is also a sweet variant. In addition to the presence of sugar, with or without candied fruit, the sweet pizza has a fiocca or a meringue glaze and beads of sugar.

Regional Recipe from Marche, Umbria, Lazio, Abruzzo, Molise

Cicerchiata

Cicerchiata – Giacaz Public Domain

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Cicerchiata is a typical Italian carnival cake, recognized as a traditional food product for Abruzzi, Marches, and Molise, and spread in Umbria and internal immigration from these regions, in Rome.
It is similar to the Neapolitan struffoli, a Christmas sweet with balls more prominent than the cicerchiata.

Origin

According to the Atlas of traditional products of Abruzzo (ARSSA – Abruzzo Region, 2004), the origin of the product is to be found in Abruzzo, in particular in the area of Sangro “thanks to the development of beekeeping that, yesterday as today, made available honey of excellent quality.” The origin of the name in those areas is the dialectal words used for the circle shapes, as well as there is a musical instrument called vatta-cicerchie (circle beater)
According to others, instead, referring to more ancient times, it would originate from the historical Umbria (roughly, the Umbria east of Tiber river and Marche). Thus, only it is subsequent spreading from Umbria to central Marche, to Abruzzo, and finally to Molise would have contributed to the opinion that it is sweet from Abruzzo.
According to others, cicerchiata is instead a sweet from the Marches.

Its appearance.
The cake uses flour, eggs, and olive oil, in some butter and sugar, liqueur, or lemon juice. This dough is obtained with tiny balls of about one centimeter in diameter fried in olive oil or lard. So drained, they are mixed with hot honey and arranged in a circle. As the honey cools, it cements the balls together and gives solidity to the structure. Some variants add different ingredients to the basic recipe, as it often happens with traditional and ancient sweets.

The etymology of the name
Marsican Cicerchia
A very similar sweet is mentioned in the tables of Gubbio as ritual and sacrificial food with the name, in ancient Umbrian language, of strusla. It is the continuation of sruikela, diminutive of struex, a variant of the most common strues, that means “mucchio.” The most excellent current scholar of the Umbrian language, Prof. Augusto Ancillotti, also states that the Italian “costruire” is “ammucchiare insieme.”
In all probability, the name cicerchiata has medieval origins. It derives from cicerchia (Lathyrus sativus), a legume similar to peas (Pisum sativum), and chickpeas (Cicer arietinum). They are very common at that time in the Umbrian – Marches area and also in southern Italy. Still, today, it is cultivated in Latium, Marches, Umbria, Molise, and Apulia, not on a large scale but as a typical specialty. According to what has been said, the meaning of “cicerchiata” would therefore be that of “pile of cicerchie.”

Similar sweets
There is a remarkable resemblance with Neapolitan struffoli, which would derive the name from the Greek adjective στρόγγυλος (stróngylos), meaning “of roundish shape.” Linguistically they have the same root from the Umbrian word strusla and therefore probably a common Indo-European origin.
In Greece, there is a similar cake called Λουκουμάδες (Lukumádes). Similar to cicerchiata are also Kurdish Loqme, Turkish Lokma, and Persian Lvkvmandas.

Regional Recipe from Abruzzo, Marche, Molise
Production area Abruzzo Frentana area, Marche region (all the regional territory and in particular the Ancona area), Foligno mountains

Cicerchie – Gustiamo.com

Cicerchie is one of the most ancient legumes of history: there’s proof of cicerchie beans in the Fertile Crescent archaeological sites dating back to 8000 BC. Moreover, they have an incredible resistance to droughts, so people relied on cicerchie as their main sustenance for months in tough times.
Forgotten for a long time, they are being rediscovered little by little, mainly thanks to the extraordinary nutritional values that turn this rustic legume into a wholesome meat alternative that is an excellent energy source and protein source. Chock full of vitamins, minerals like phosphorus and calcium, and edible fibers, it is no surprise that cicerchie called “the meat of peasants.”
They are a wild variety of chickpeas, very similar in taste and shape, with a more assertive personality and more earthy and rich notes—recipes for cicerchie range from warm soups and stews to salads bruschette.

Ingredients

Serves 10 people

One bag of cicerchie (1lb)
5 liters of water
Rosemary, or other preferred herbs
Leek, or garlic, or onions
Sea salt
Extra virgin olive oil

How to make Cicerchiata

Compared to other legumes, cicerchie need a longer cooking time at higher temperatures, especially to reach high digestibility.

  1. Soak in fresh water overnight or for as long as 24 hours
  2. Discard the soaking water and place cicerchie in the heaviest and thickest pot you have
  3. Cover with fresh water and bring to a boil
  4. Add aromatic herbs or leek to the boiling water.
  5. Cover with a lid and cook on a low flame; water has to be simmering.
  6. Cicerchie will be cooked when they have an evenly tender texture but still have a bite. Approximately 45 minutes / 1 hour
  7. You can salt cicerchie while they are boiling or at the end of cooking, while they cool down in their own juices.
  8. Once cooled, drain* and drizzle with extra virgin olive oil. Serve it on a slice of toasted bread as a flavorful side dish, or add a little additional broth and serve as a soup

*The cooking water of legumes is extremely rich in flavors and nutrients: it makes an excellent broth or base for any recipe. Do not discard and store in the refrigerator or freezer for further use.

Strozzapreti

Strangozzi al ragù first course, Perugia, Umbria – Cantalamessa Public Domain

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Strozzapreti is a family of different types of short pasta that can be in the form of the twisted cordon, macaroni, or gnocco, widespread in different Italian regions.

History

The name strozzapreti derives from the fact that this type of pasta, given its shape, is not always easy to eat and alludes maliciously to priests’ proverbial gluttony. Mentioned several times in Roman literature, for example, in the Sonnets of Giuseppe Gioachino Belli, strozzapreti was born as a pasta to be cooked then typical of holidays or bourgeois use. The poet describes them as “cannelletti of dried pasta, one inch long” to be seasoned or cooked with sughillo [stew sauce].”

How to make Strozzapreti

Strozzapreti Romagnoli
The pasta sheet must be rolled out with a rolling pin fairly thick; then, it must be cut into strips about 1.5 cm wide. In turn, the strips are cut at 5 cm or more in length and manually twisted one by one as for cavatelli (which are much smaller).

Strozzapreti Trentini – Stefano Bolognini Attribution

Typology and territorial diffusion

In Trentino and Milanese cuisine, strangolapreti is gnocchi made with stale bread, spinach, eggs, and Trentino Parmesan cheese, served with melted butter and sage. In Milanese and Larian cooking, soft cheese is also added.
In the cuisine of Romagna, strozzapreti is short twisted strands of pasta made by hand from water and flour. In the countryside between Faenza and Lugo is widespread strozzapreti with the knot, obtained by knotting each piece of pasta after twisting it on itself. In the kitchen of Imola and Lugo, between the end of ‘800 and the middle of ‘900, strozzapreti was called “priests suffocated,” terminology then disappeared and was slightly larger.

Umbrian cooking with the term strozzapreti or strangozzi is meant a long square section of pasta made of water and flour.
In Latium, cooking strozzapreti is spaghettoni pulled by hand. In Viterbo’s cooking, stratto is a hand made pasta, typical of Blera, seasoned with truffles.
In L’Aquila, strangolapreti is a big string of durum wheat pasta about 20 cm long.
Neapolitan cooking, with the term strangulapriévete, is designated simple gnocchi, homemade with water and flour.
In Salento, cooking with the term strangulaprevati are meant potato gnocchi.
In Calabrian cuisine, strangugliapreviti are gnocchi made of flour and eggs; in the tradition of Nicastro, they are the dish of Shrove Tuesday.
In Corsican cooking, the name “sturzapréti” refers to small gnocchi made with brocciu cheese and spinach or cardoons.

Strozzapeti Romagnoli – Eiminun CC BY-SA 4.0

Regional Recipe from Emilia-Romagna, Tuscany, Trentino Alto Adige, Marche, Umbria, Abruzzo, Lazio, Calabria

Abruzzo Salami

The country has obviously encouraged the raising of pigs and then working with his flesh. So there are hams, sausages (those are must-eat liver sausage and so-called mad) that are often preserved in oil or lard in the Coppa and made the pig’s head. Very special and hard to find now is l’Annoje, tripe sausage with chili. Cured pork is very good also, a kind of loin spread throughout the region. Typical is the mortadella Campotosto although in Abruzzo is better known as “coglioni di mulo”. Tasty hams are smoked Introdacqua (Aq) and LAG (Aq). Among the salami, are those that are valuable in Guilmi (Ch) and Torano (Te). Finally we must remember the Ventricina, which is typical of the provinces of Teramo and Chieti. Ventricina (pork belly meat) is good spread on bruschetta.

Cacciatorini DOP

Pork Salami

Cacciatorini sausages are popular for their characteristic taste and small size, which is quickly seasoned and can always be consumed fresh, since eaten quickly one at a time. Moreover, the name of this sausage derives exactly from a widespread rural use of hunters who used to bring short sausages with them in their excursions because, considering their reduced size, they could place them easily in their sacks

Fegato Dolce

Pork Salami
Pork Salami liver in casings; flavored with honey.

Fegato Pazzo

Pork Salami
Pork Salami liver in casings; flavored with chili.

Fiaschetta Aquilana

Pork Salami
the “fiaschetta aquilana” is made from lean meat from the thigh of the pig, finely chopped and flavored with salt and spices, then stuffed into a natural intestine casing and placed under pressure for a period of time. The shape of the salami is similar to that of an ancient “fiaschetta portapolvere” or powder flask used to hold gunpowder in the age of muzzle loading firearms.

Guanciale Amatriciano

Pork Salami
The cheek of the pig with special care is detached from the head starting from the throat, trim until you get a classic triangular shape.
It is at this point put in salt for 4 or 5 days, depending on weather conditions.

Lonza

Pork Salami
Sausage from the shoulder and neck of the pig; spiced, salted, and hung to dry, aged for a minimum of 2 months. Called Capocollo elsewhere.

Mortadella di Campotosto

These small mortadellas are commonly called Coglioni di Mulo (“Mule’s Balls”).  They are, of course, made of pork, the mule only being part of the image. It is a fine-grained salami of choice meat with a square column of lard in the center. According to some of its admirers, the tri-color composition (the white lard, the red meat and the black pepper) has greatly contributed to the commercial success of the product, whose fame has long spread past the borders of the region.

Pancetta

Fatty meat from the pig’s belly, shaped in rectangles or coiled. Essentially it is un-smoked bacon; it is served raw as an antipasto or cooked in numerous dishes.

Prosciutto di Basciano

Basciano boasts very special prosciutto. Basciano is a town near the Val Vomano. The area is caressed by chilly breezes from the mountains, making ideal conditions for the aging of highly esteemed prosciutto. The method used is the classic one, which distinguishes all country style prosciutto. The thigh, cleaned and trimmed, is placed in a press for a couple of days so that it loses its internal humor. A dry massage then salts it with a mixture of salt, garlic, and hot peppers. The prosciutto is then hung to age and is ready to be eaten after one year.

Salame di Pecora

Sheep
Rare salami from Anversa degli Abruzzi; sweet and delicate.

Soppressata

Pork Salami
“La soppressata” has this name because it is pressed under weights, made with lean meat, and is born of an antique and laborious procedure; it requires attention and care during the drying and conservation. It is destined for particular circumstances and people.

Ventricina Vastese

Pork Salami
Pork salami spiced with chili and wild fennel; aged at least three months.
Ventricina is unique and quite identifiable between Abruzzo’s delicatessen and is historically produced in the hilly zone near Trigno and Sinello rives, called “Vastese.”

Galantina di faraona – Duck Galantine

Duck galantine. – Javi Vte Rejas CC BY 2.0

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Galantine (from medieval Latin galatina, prob. dalmatic form of gelatin) is a white meat main course.

History

The preparation of galantine in some European states, such as Poland, is attested since the Middle Ages.

Regional variants

In the Umbrian culinary tradition, galantine is considered a Christmas dish. In its preparation, besides the basic ingredients, there are also Parmesan cheese, pistachios, and black truffle. In ancient times it was prepared for baptism and wedding lunches. Usually, it was the house’s women – sometimes men also tried their hand – who cooked it in exchange for oil, wine, and other fruits of the earth or even money. Galantine is also prepared in the Marches and in Abruzzi, in whose gastronomic tradition; however, it is not seen exclusively as a Christmas dish, but it is consumed all year round.

Ingredients

1 large guinea fowl
2 carrots
1/2 red pepper
5 oz. Prosciutto Veneto Berico-Euganeo
1/2 cup grated Parmigiano Reggiano cheese
1 oz. fresh pistachio nuts
1 cup ground pork
3 lemons
1 egg
6 red cranberries
3 black truffles
1 celery stalk
1 small onion
1 sprig of fresh herbs
extra virgin olive oil
butter
sage
chicken broth
salt and pepper

How to make Galantina di Faraona:

Remove the skin from the guinea fowl, keeping it intact and set aside. Then remove the bones. Marinate the meat for 6 hours or overnight in lemon juice, one cup of olive oil, and salt.

Dice the prosciutto and finely mince the guinea fowl meat. In a bowl, mix the minced fowl, the diced prosciutto, the grated cheese, the pork, the pistachios, the cranberries, the sliced truffle, the egg.

On a cloth, spread out the skin, place the filling on top. Shape the filling like the bird and then sew the skin around it.

Chop the fresh herbs, the carrot, the celery stalk, two sage leaves, and the small onion. Place the mixture in an oven-baking dish with about 3 tbsp. of butter. Brown in a preheated oven at 350°F for about 15 minutes. Then pour in the 2 cups of broth and gently place the galantine in the baking dish. Cook in the oven for one hour, adding broth if necessary.

Remove the galantine, wrap it in a clean cloth, and let cool under a weight. The galantine should be served sliced and at room temperature.

Serves 4

Regional Recipe from Lombardy, Umbria, Marches and Abruzzi

Zuppa Inglese – Italian English Trifle

Zuppa Inglese – Lungoleno CC BY-SA 4.0

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
The Zuppa Inglese is a sweet Italian spoon made with custard and sponge cake soaked in liqueurs such as alchermes, rosolio, bitter almonds, or rum. Very famous in Italy, mostly spread in Emilia-Romagna, Latium, Marche, Tuscany, Umbria, and Abruzzo. In every region, some small variations to the basic recipe differentiate it in a significant way.

Appearance and variants
The sweet is prepared by overlapping layers of sponge cake or ladyfingers, soaked in different liqueurs, to custard layers. The liqueur usually used is alchermes, which gives the sweet red color in addition to the flavor. Sometimes it is prepared in a transparent baking pan to make visible the variously colored layers. The cake is then kept in the fridge to make it more compact and usually served cold.
It is a cake which has some variants. Besides custard, sometimes chocolate cream is also used, thus contributing not only to the taste but also to a more colorful presentation of this homemade cake. Some recipes appear apricot jam, very loved by nineteenth-century confectioners, and in others, fruit preserves. Other recipes integrate the preparation with coffee, making it similar to tiramisu. Some, finally, add a touch of cinnamon.
In Ferrara, instead of sponge cake, it is sometimes used brazadèla, the typical and straightforward traditional cake with a dough similar to a donut but with a flattened loaf. A variant from Modena and Ferrara’s border area may be spread in the ’60s, where mint syrup is added to the traditional mixture of alcohol.
In Turkish cooking, there is a sweet called supangle (soup Anglais, that is “English soup” in French), which, however, being a chocolate pudding, is not similar to English soup.

History
Zuppa Inglese is undoubtedly an Italian sweet, but its name’s origin and etymology are extremely doubtful, and there is no documentation about it. However, there are many legends about its birth, in which the invention is attributed to many regions of Italy or some European countries. The name already appeared at the end of the 1800s in the “bible” of Italian cooking written by Pellegrino Artusi, La Scienza in Cucina e l’Arte di Mangiar bene. The recipe is n. 675.
Its spreading is attested since the 1800s in at least three Italian regions: Emilia-Romagna, Marche, and Tuscany.
In Emilia-Romagna cuisine, for more than a century, it has been prepared in Bologna, Parma, Piacenza, Modena, Ferrara, Reggio Emilia, and Ravenna.
In the Marches, particularly in Ancona, this cake’s use is also documented since the mid-nineteenth century; English travelers in the Marches were amazed by the name, having never seen this cake in their homeland. Interesting is the explanation they received from the Italians: the English term was meant as a synonym of alcohol lover, as they believed English people were, as the recipe requires the use of liquors.
Even in Tuscany, Zuppa Inglese is spread at least since the nineteenth century. Artusi felt the need to inform the Tuscans about the difference existing between the cream they usually prepare and the custard needed for the preparation of Zuppa Inglese, describing the Tuscan recipe more similar to the one of today in a cup instead of similar to a cake to be unmolded which is his recipe.

Zuppa Inglese can be round and flat or egg-shaped. It may also be prepared in a bowl. Moreover, the cream may be divided into two flavors, such as vanilla and chocolate. Alchermes is a liquor essential to this dessert, but it may be substituted with curacao or Grand Marnier.

Ingredients

8 eggs, separated
1/2 vanilla stick
8 oz. confectioners’ sugar
sponge cake
1 qt. milk
1 oz. alchemies
1 tbs. flour
1 oz. rum

How to make the Zuppa Inglese – Italian English Trifle:

Prepare a vanilla cream with eight egg yolks, 2/3 cup sugar, milk, flour, and vanilla. Warm the milk, add the egg yolks, sugar, vanilla, and flour. Keep mixing over low heat until you get a smooth cream, but do not allow it to boil.

Cut the sponge cake into slices about 1/2-in. thick and 1-in. wide. Arrange a layer of sponge cake in a deep serving platter, sprinkle with alchemies to moisten, and then pour a cream layer. Cover with another layer of sponge cake. Sprinkle with rum, spread with cream, cover with the last layer of sponge cake and drizzle with alchemies.

Whip the egg whites. Combine them gently with the remaining sugar, and cover the cake. Brown the meringue with a burner or in the salamander.

Serves 4

Regional Recipe from Emilia-Romagna, Lazio, Marche, Tuscany, Umbria, Abruzzo

Zuppa Di Cardoni

Ingredients

4 large cardoons
1/2 lb. lean veal, chopped
l/4 lb. chicken livers, chopped
2 eggs
6 slices of country bread
1/2 cup grated Parmigiano
2 tbs. olive oil
1/4 cup white wine
2 qts. chicken broth

How to make the Zuppa Di Cardoni – Soup of Cardoons:

Clean, remove the outer leaves and chop the cardoons. Cook in 2 qts. water with the juice of 1/2 a lemon. When done, remove from water and set aside. Combine the veal, chicken livers, eggs, and Parmigiano, mix well and prepare small dumplings the size of a nutmeg. Saute them in oil and sprinkle with the white wine. When they have cooked through, set aside.

Next, combine the cardoons with the dumplings and pour over the boiling broth. Bring the broth to a boil. Arrange slices of country bread into 6 rimmed plates and pour over the boiling soup. Serve immediately.

Serves 4

books-on-italy.com

books-on-italy.com

books-on-italy.com

books-on-italy.com